The University of Texas at Austin; College of Liberal Arts
Hans C. Boas, Director :: PCL 5.556, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566
LRC Links: Home | About | Books Online | EIEOL | IE Doc. Center | IE Lexicon | IE Maps | IE Texts | Pub. Indices | SiteMap

Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯e-n-g-   'bent'

Semantic Fields: to Bend; Crooked


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hlēapewince n.fem lapwing W7
  pinewincle n.fem periwinkle W7/ASD
  wancol adj wonky W7
  wencel n.neut wench, child W7
  wince n.fem winch W7
  wincian vb to wink W7
Middle English: lapwing n lapwing W7
  periwinkle n periwinkle W7
  wankel adj wankle W7
  wenche n wench W7
  wenchel n child W7
  wenchen vb to wince, dart about, be impatient W7
  winche n winch, reel, roller W7
  winken vb to wink W7
English: gauche adj crude, lacking social grace/experience AHD/W7
  lapwing n crested Old World plover AHD/W7
  periwinkle n gastropod mollusk AHD/W7
  vacillate vb to sway, oscillate, fluctuate LRC
  wankle adj wonky AHD/W7
  wench n girl, young woman AHD/W7
  wince vb.intrans to flinch, shrink back involuntarily AHD/W7
  winch n machine/instrument for hauling/pulling AHD/W7
  wink vb to close one eye briefly AHD/W7
  winkle n periwinkle W7
  wonky adj shaky, unstable, unsteady AHD/W7
Old Saxon: wankol adj wankle, fickle, uncertain, fluctuating ASD
Old High German: wanchal adj wankle, slippery, treacherous ASD
  wankōn vb to totter W7
  winchan/winchen vb to wink, blink; waver, stagger W7/ASD
German: wankeln vb to totter LRC
  wanken vb to waver, falter, stagger LRC
  winken vb to wink, wave, sign, signal LRC
Danish: vincle n winkle, snail shell W7
Latin: vacillo, vacillare vb to reel, waver, totter, vacillate W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etyma:    previous   |   next