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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. u̯er-, also su̯er-   'to bind, attach; strive'

Semantic Fields: to Bind; to Work, Toil


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: swǣran vb.wk to press, be burdensome GED
  swār/swǣr(e) adj heavy GED/ASD
Middle English: air(e)/ayere n air W7/MEV
  arsis n arsis, raising the voice AHD
  arterie n artery W7
  aura n aura W7
  meteor n meteor W7
  seryows adj serious W7
English: aerial adj re: air/atmosphere AHD/W7
  aer(o)- pfx aerial AHD
  aerodyne n heavier-than-air aircraft AHD
  aeronaut n one who works/travels in atmosphere AHD/W7
  air n mixture of invisible gases (nitrogen/oxygen) surrounding earth AHD/W7
  airport n place for aircraft takeoff/landing W7
  aorta n great trunk artery carrying blood from heart AHD/W7
  aria n tune, melody AHD/W7
  arsis n lighter/shorter part of poetic foot AHD/W7
  arteriole n small terminal artery ending in capillaries AHD/W7
  artery n tubular branching vessel carrying blood from heart AHD/W7
  aura n.obs air, light breeze AHD/W2I
  malaria n lit. bad air (infected with noxious disease-causing substance) AHD/W7
  meteor n visible aerial phenomenon (e.g. rainbow/snowfall/lightning) AHD/W7
  serious adj sober/subdued/thoughtful in manner/appearance AHD/W7
Old Frisian: swēr(e) adj heavy GED
  swēria vb.wk to press, be burdensome GED
Old Saxon: swāri adj heavy GED
Middle Low German: swāren vb.wk to press, be burdensome GED
  swēre n.fem weight, burden GED
Old High German: swar adj heavy GED
  swārēn vb.wk to press, be burdensome GED
  swār(i) adj heavy GED/ASD
  swāri(da) n.fem weight, burden GED
German: schwer adj heavy LRC
  Schwere n.fem weight, cruelty LRC
Old Icelandic: svārr adj heavy GED
Icelandic: svárr adj heavy, grave ASD
Gothic: swers adj esteemed, honored GED
Latin: āēr, āeris n.masc air W7
  aerius adj airy, re: air W7
  arteria n.fem artery W7
  aura n.fem aura W7
  serius adj serious, weighty GED
Late Latin: arsis n.fem raising of the voice, accented part of foot W7
  seriosus adj serious W7
Medieval Latin: meteorum n.neut meteor W7
New Latin: aorta n aorta AHD
  arteriola n.fem vein, arteriole W7
Portuguese: arteria n artery CDC
Spanish: arteria n artery CDC
Old Catalan: arteria n artery CDC
Old French: air n.masc air W7
  artere n artery CDC
Middle French: metéore n.masc meteor W7
  sérieux adj serious, grave W7
French: artère n artery  
  artériole n.fem small artery, blood vessel W7
Italian: aria n.fem aura; aria W7/CID
  arteria n artery CDC
  malaria n.fem malaria W7
Lithuanian: svãras n.masc scale, pound GED/IEW
  svarùs adj heavy GED
  sver̃ti vb to lift, weigh GED
  svõras/svõris n weight GED
Latvian: svars n weight GED
Albanian: aeroport n.masc airport LRC
Homeric Greek: ἀείρω vb to lift, raise up LRC
  ἀήρ n.masc air; mist, cloud, vapor LRC
  αʼίρω vb to lift, raise up LRC
  αʼύρη n.fem aura LRC
Greek: aerios adj aerial W7
  aortē n.fem aorta W7
  arsis n.fem arsis, up-beat W7
  artēria n artery AHD
  ʽέρμα n ship's ballast GED
  mete-ōros adj high in the air W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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