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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3a. u̯er-, u̯r̥mi-s, u̯r̥mo-s   'worm'

Semantic Field: Worm


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wyrm/wurm/weorm n.masc worm ASD
  wyrm-tunge n.wk.fem bitter-spoken person LRC
Middle English: worm n worm W7
English: vermeil n vermilion AHD/W7
  vermi- pfx worm AHD/W7
  vermicelli n pasta like spaghetti (but thinner) AHD/W7
  vermicular adj resembling worm in form/motion AHD/W7
  vermin n noxious/mischievous/disgusting small animal(s) AHD/W7
  worm n reptile, serpent, dragon; earthworm AHD/W7
  Wormtongue prop.n epithet for Grima in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Dutch: worm n worm TLL
Old Saxon: wurm n.masc worm ASD
Old High German: wurm n.masc worm W7/ASD
German: Gewürm n.coll vermin TLL
  Wurm n.masc worm LRC
Old Norse: ormr n worm: snake KNW
Icelandic: ormr n.masc worm ASD
Danish: orm n worm TLL
Swedish: orm n worm: snake TLL
Gothic: waurms n.masc worm ASD
Latin: vermiculus n.masc.dim small worm W7
  vermis n.masc worm W7
Late Latin: vermi- pfx vermi- W7
New Latin: vermicularis adj vermicular W7
Middle French: vermeil adj red W7
  vermin n.fem vermin, worm(s) W7
Italian: vèrme n.masc worm W7
  vermicello, vermicelli n.masc vermicelli W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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