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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3b. u̯er-, u̯er-b-, and u̯er-bh-   'to bend, turn, warp'

Semantic Fields: to Bend; to Turn


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wearp n.neut warp W7
  weorpan vb to warp, throw W7
Middle English: verveine n vervain W7
  warp n warp W7
  warpen vb to warp W7
English: reverberate vb to force back AHD/W7
  verbena n vervain (garden plant) AHD/W7
  vervain n verbena (garden plant) AHD/W7
  warp n yarn extended lengthwise in loom (crossed by woof) AHD/W7
  warp vb to turn/twist out of shape AHD/W7
Old Frisian: werpa vb to warp, cast, fling, throw ASD
Old Saxon: warp n.neut warp; thing thrown IEW
  werpan vb to warp, cast, fling, throw IEW
Old High German: war(a)f n.neut warp, thread; thing thrown IEW/ASD
  werfan vb to warp, cast, fling, throw IEW
German: werfen vb to throw, cast; warp LRC
Old Norse: verpa vb to warp, throw, cast LRC
Old Icelandic: varp n.neut warp; thing thrown IEW
Icelandic: varp n.neut warping, casting ASD
  verpa vb to warp, cast, fling, throw ASD
Gothic: waírpan vb.str.III to warp, cast, fling, throw LRC
Latin: reverberatus vb.ptc reflected, pushed away W7
  reverbero, reverberāre vb to reverberate, push away W7
  verbena n.fem verbena: sacred bough, medicinal plant W7
  verber n.neut rod W7
  verbero, verberāre vb to lash W7
New Latin: verbena n.fem verbena: medicinal plant W7
Middle French: verveine n.fem vervain W7
Homeric Greek: ῥάβδος n.fem rod, wand LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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