Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our
own English gloss; our Semantic Field
Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical
All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.
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Pokorny Etymon: 3c. u̯er-, u̯(e)r-ed- 'to sway, bend down'
Semantic Field: to Bend
|Old English:||wrǣstan||vb||to wrest, bend, twist||W7/ASD|
|wrǣstlian||vb.freq||to bend, twist, wrestle||W7/ASD|
|Middle English:||wrasten/wresten||vb||to wrest||W7|
|English:||wrest||vb.trans||to pull/force/move by violent wringing/twisting||AHD/W7|
|wrestle||vb||to contend by grappling/striving to trip/throw||AHD/W7|
|Middle Dutch:||wrastelen||vb||to wrestle||ASD|
|Gothic:||wratōn||vb.wk.II||to go, wander, journey||LRC|
Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:
Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):
|AHD||=||Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)|
|ASD||=||Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)|
|LRC||=||Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin|
|W7||=||Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)|