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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 6. u̯er-   'to speak, talk formally'

Semantic Field: to Speak, Talk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: word n.neut word, speech LRC
Middle English: adverbe n adverb AHD
  proverbe n proverb W7
  rethor n rhetor W7
  verbe n verb W7
  word n word W7
English: adverb n word modifying verb/adjective/other adverb AHD/W7
  irony n pretense of ignorance to make false conceptions conspicuous AHD/W7
  proverb n adage, brief popular maxim/epigram AHD/W7
  rheme n expression of single idea/notion AHD/W2I
  rhetor n rhetorician AHD/W7
  rhetoric n art of speaking/writing effectively W7
  rhetorical adj re: rhetoric W7
  rhetorician n orator, master/teacher of rhetoric W7
  verb n word expressing action/occurrence/mode of being AHD/W7
  verve n special ability/talent AHD/W7
  word n something that is said AHD/W7
Old Frisian: word n.neut word ASD
Dutch: woord n word LRC
Old Saxon: word n.neut word ASD
Old High German: wort n.neut word W7/ASD
German: Wort n.neut word LRC
Icelandic: orð n.neut word ASD
Danish: ord n word LRC
Swedish: ord n word LRC
Gothic: waúrd n.str.neut word LRC
Latin: adverbium n.neut adverb W7
  ironia n.fem irony W7
  proverbium n.neut proverb W7
  rhetorica, rhetoricae n.fem rhetoric LRC
  verbum, verbi n.neut word LRC
Old French: adverbe n adverb AHD
Middle French: adverbe n.masc adverb W7
  proverbe n.masc proverb W7
  verbe n.masc speech W7
French: verve n.fem verve, eloquence, energy in public speaking W7
Lithuanian: var̃das n.masc name LRC
Latvian: apvārdot, apvārdoju, apvārdoju vb to charm LRC
  vārds n.masc word, name LRC
Homeric Greek: εʼίρω vb to say, speak LRC
  ῥητήρ n rhetor, speaker LRC
Greek: εἰρέω vb to say, speak LRC
  eirōn n.masc dissembler W7
  eirōnia n.fem irony W7
  ῥη̃μα n.neut rheme, saying, that which is said/spoken LS
  ῥητορική n.fem rhetoric LRC
  ῥητορικω̃ς adv like rhetoricians LRC
  rhētōr n.masc rhetor W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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