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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯(e)rād-, erəd-, u̯rəd-   'root, branch, twig'

Semantic Fields: Root; Branch

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: rædic/rǣdic n.masc radish W7/ASD
  rōt n.fem root W7
  wyrt n.fem wort W7
Middle English: licorice n licorice W7
  radical adj radical W7
  radish n radish W7
  root n root W7
  wort n wort W7
English: Blackroot prop.n vale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  coleorhiza n sheath investing hypocotyl through which roots burst AHD/W7
  deracinate vb.trans to uproot AHD/W7
  eradicate vb.trans to pull up by roots AHD/W7
  irradicable adj deep-rooted, impossible to eradicate AHD/W7
  licorice n European leguminous plant AHD/W7
  mangel-wurzel n large coarse beet (food for cattle) AHD/W7
  Mugwort prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  mycorrhiza n symbiotic association of fungus with plant roots AHD/W7
  radical adj re: root AHD/W7
  radicle n lower part of axis of plant embryo/seedling AHD/W7
  radish n pungent fleshy plant root AHD/W7
  radix n base AHD/W7
  ramose adj having/consisting of branches AHD/W7
  ramus n branch, projecting part, elongated process AHD/W7
  rhizome n elongated horizontal underground plant stem AHD/W7
  root n underground part of seed-plant body AHD/W7
  rutabaga n turnip AHD/W7
  wort n plant, herb AHD/W7
  wort n dilute sugar solution fermented to make beer AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Dutch: radijs n radish TLL
  wortel n root TLL
Old Saxon: wurt n.fem root, plant ASD
Old High German: rātih/retih n radish ASD
  wurz n.fem wort: herb; grass, vegetables ASD
Middle High German: retich n radish ASD
  würze n brewer's wort W7
German: Mangelwurzel n.fem mangel-wurzel W7
  Mangoldwurzel n.fem mangel-wurzel, lit. beet root W7
  Radieschen n radish TLL
  Rettich n radish ASD
  Würze n.fem wort, flavor, seasoning LRC
  Wurzel n.fem root W7
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: rót n.fem root LRC
Icelandic: urt n.fem wort: herb ASD
Danish: radise n radish TLL
Swedish: rot n root W7
  rotabagge n rutabaga W7
  rädisa n radish TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: waúrts n.str.fem root, plant LRC
Italic  
Latin: eradicatus vb.ptc eradicated W7
  eradico, eradicare vb to eradicate, remove roots W7
  radicula n.fem.dim small root W7
  radius, radii n.masc rod, beam LRC
  radix, radicis n.fem root W7
  ramosus adj having many branches W7
  ramus n.masc branch W7
Late Latin: liquiritia n.fem licorice W7
  radicalis adj re: root(s) W7
  radicina n.fem little root W7
Medieval Latin: irradicabilis adj irradicable W7
New Latin: coleorhiza n.fem coleorhiza W7
  mycorrhiza n.fem mycorrhiza W7
  ramus n.masc branch W7
  rhizoma n.fem rhizome W7
Middle French: desraciner vb to deracinate W7
  racine n.fem root W7
French: déraciner vb to deracinate W7
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: ῥίζα n.fem root LRC
  ῥιζόω vb to plant, cause to take root LRC
Greek: glykyrrhiza n.fem licorice, lit. sweet root W7
  rhizōma n.fem mass of roots W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
dim=diminutive
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
prop=proper
ptc=participle
str=strong (inflection)
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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