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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯ers-   'to drag along the ground'

Semantic Field: to Draw, Pull


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wierresta/wyrsta adj.sup worst W7
  wiersa/wyrsa adj.comp worse W7
Middle English: werre n war(fare) W7
  werse/worse adj.comp worse W7
  werste/worste adj.sup worst W7
English: bratwurst n small fried pork sausage AHD
  guerrilla n irregular warfare waged by independent bands AHD/W7
  liverwurst n liver sausage AHD/W7
  war n state of open/declared armed hostile conflict AHD/W7
  worse adj.comp more inferior in value/quality/condition AHD/W7
  worst adj.sup most inferior in value/quality/condition AHD/W7
  wurst n sausage AHD/W7
Scots English: war adj/adv worse AHD/W7
Old Frisian: wirra adj.comp worse ASD
Old Saxon: wirsa adj.comp worse ASD
  wirsista adj.sup worst ASD
Old High German: werra n strife, confusion W7
  werran vb to confuse W7
  wirsiro adj.comp worse W7
  wirsisto adj.sup worst ASD
German: Bratwurst n.fem bratwurst LRC
  Leberwurst n.fem liverwurst W7
  Wirren n.neut confusion LRC
  Wurst n.fem sausage W7
Old Norse: verr adv worse W7
  verri adj.comp worse W7
Icelandic: verri adj.comp worse ASD
  verstr adj.sup worst ASD
Swedish: värste adj.sup worst TLL
Gothic: wairsiza adj.comp worse ASD
Latin: verro, verrere vb to sweep (away) W7
Spanish: guerrilla n.fem.dim guerrilla W7
Old North French: werre n.fem war W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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