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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. u̯es-   'to dress, clothe, wear'

Semantic Field: to Clothe, Dress


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: werian vb.wk to wear W7/ASD
Middle English: vesten vb to vest W7
  weren vb to wear W7
English: devest vb.trans to divest AHD/W7
  divest vb.trans to undress, strip off clothing W7
  himation n rectangular cloth garment (worn in ancient Greece) AHD/W7
  invest vb to commit (funds) to earn financial return AHD/W7
  invest vb.trans to array in symbols of office/honor AHD/W7
  revet vb.trans to face (embankment) with stones AHD/W7
  travesty n burlesque/grotesque translation/imitation AHD/W7
  vest n robe, loose outer garment AHD/W7
  vest vb to place/give into another's possession/discretion AHD/W7
  wear, wore, worn vb.str to bear/have (clothing) upon oneself AHD/W7
Dutch: vest n vest, waistcoat TLL
Old High German: werien vb to wear, clothe ASD
German: Weste n.fem vest LRC
Old Norse: verja vb to wear, dress, clothe; spend, invest W7
Icelandic: verja vb to wear, clothe ASD
Danish: vest n vest, waistcoat TLL
Swedish: väst n vest, waistcoat TLL
Gothic: wasjan vb to wear, dress, clothe LRC
  *wasti n.str.fem vest, garment LRC
Latin: investio, investire vb to clothe, surround W7
  revestio, revestire vb to wear again W7
  vestio, vestire vb to wear, dress, clothe W7
  vestis n.fem vest(ments), clothing W7
  vestitus, vestitus n.masc vest, clothing LRC
Medieval Latin: disvestio, disvestire vb to devest, undress W7
Middle French: desvestir vb to devest, undress W7
  investir vb to invest; invade W7
  vestir vb to dress W7
French: revêtir vb to dress up W7
  travestir vb to disguise W7
  veste n.fem vest W7
Old Italian: investire vb to surround with troops; endow with quality/characteristic W7
Italian: investire vb to clothe; invest money W7
  travestire vb to disguise W7
  vèste n.fem dress, gown; quality, appearance W7
Homeric Greek: εʽι̃μα n.neut garment, clothing LRC
  ʽέννῡμι vb to clothe (someone) LRC
Greek: ἱμάτιον n.neut clothing LRC
Hittite: wasapa- n clothes LRC
  wešš(iya)- vb to wear, dress, clothe LRC
Armenian: zgenum vb to get dressed LRC
Avestan: vaste vb to get dressed LRC
Sanskrit: váste vb to get dressed LRC
Tocharian B: wäs- vb to get dressed LRC
Tocharian A: wäs- vb to wear, dress, clothe LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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