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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. u̯ī̆-   'apart, separate from, in two; both'

Semantic Field: to Separate


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wīd adj wide, broad W7
  wīde adv far, widely LRC
  wiþ prep with, along LRC
  wiðer adv/prep against W7
Middle English: vice n vice, flaw, disorder, deficiency W7
  wide adj wide W7
  with prep with, from W7
  withers withers W7
English: iso- pfx same, alike, equal TLL
  vice n wickedness, moral corruption/depravity AHD/W7
  vicious adj depraved, having nature/quality of vice/immorality AHD
  vitiate vb.trans to pollute, contaminate AHD/W7
  vitiligo n skin disorder (with smooth white spots) AHD/W7
  vituperate vb.trans to berate, abuse/censure severely/abusively AHD/W7
  wide adj vast, having great extent AHD/W7
  wide(ly) adv over great extent/distance W7
  Wídfara prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  with prep against, in opposition to AHD/W7
  withers ridge between shoulder bones of horse/quadruped AHD/W7
Old Frisian: wīd adj wide, broad ASD
  with prep to, towards ASD
  withir adv/prep against ASD
Old Saxon: wīd adj wide, broad ASD
  wīdo adv far, widely ASD
  wið prep to, towards ASD
  wiðar adv/prep against ASD
Old High German: widar adv/prep back, against W7
  wīt adj wide, broad W7
  wīto adv far, widely ASD
German: weit adj wide, broad LRC
  wider prep against LRC
Old Norse: við prep to, with, against LRC
Icelandic: við prep to, towards ASD
  viðr adv/prep against ASD
  vīða adv far, widely ASD
  víðr adj wide, broad ASD
Danish: bagved prep behind TLL
  ved prep beside TLL
Swedish: vid adj wide TLL
  vid prep beside TLL
Gothic: wiþra adv/prep by, near, against LRC
Latin: vitiatus vb.ptc vitiated W7
  vitiligo n.fem vitiligo, tetter W7
  vitio, vitiare vb to vitiate W7
  vitium n.neut vice, fault W7
  vituperatus vb.ptc blamed, criticized W7
  vitupero, vituperāre vb to blame, criticize W7
Old French: vice n.masc vice, fault W7
Lithuanian: vìsas, visà pron all, everyone LRC
Latvian: visi pron everyone, everybody LRC
  viss adj/pron all, everything LRC
Old Church Slavonic: vъtoryi, vъtoroje, vъtoraja nbr.ord second LRC
  vьsь adj/pron all, every; whole LRC
Greek: ʼίσος adj same, alike, equal TLL
Sanskrit: vi adv apart W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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