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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯idhu-   'tree, wood'

Semantic Fields: Tree, Oak; Wood, Timber


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: fid n tree W7
Old English: gār-wudu n.masc javelin, lit. spear-wood ASD
  wudu/wi(o)du n.masc wood ASD
  wudu-wāsa n.masc woodwose ASD
Middle English: wode n wood W7
  woodwose n woodwose OED
English: Chetwood prop.n Bree woods in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Entwood prop.n a.k.a. Fangorn Forest in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Firienwood prop.n White Mountains forest in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Greenwood prop.n Mirkwood's former name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Mirkwood prop.n gloomy forest in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
  silva n forest trees W7
  silvan/sylvan adj in woods/forest, re: silva W7
  Watchwood prop.n vigilant forest in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  wood n material from tree; forest, dense growth of trees AHD/W7
  Woodhall prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Woodland prop.n Sylvan Elves' realm in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Woodmen Mirkwood dwellers in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  woodwose n faun, satyr; wild woodsman OED
Old High German: witu n.masc wood W7/ASD
Old Norse: viðr n.masc wood, beam; tree, forest LRC
Old Icelandic: Myrk-viðr prop.n.masc east Europe forest, lit. Murk-wood LRC
Icelandic: viðr n.masc wood, tree ASD
Swedish: ved n wood TLL
Latin: silva n.fem wood, grove, forest, silva IEW/CLD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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