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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯ī̆ro-s   'man, warrior'

Semantic Fields: Man; Soldier

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: wer n.masc man LRC
  wernægl n.masc warnel, lit. man-nail OED
  werwulf n.masc werewolf, lit. man-wolf LRC
  woruld/weor(o)ld n.fem world, age, human existence W7
Middle English: decurioun n decurion W7
  virtu n virtue W7
  werewolf n werewolf W7
  world n world W7
English: curia n subdivision of ancient Roman tribe AHD/W7
  decemvir n one of 10 magistrates (ancient Rome) AHD/W7
  decurion n Roman cavalry officer commanding 10 men AHD/W7
  duumvir n one of 2 magistrates (ancient Rome) AHD/W7
  triumvir n one of 3 magistrates (ancient Rome) AHD/W7
  virago n woman of great strength/stature/courage AHD/W7
  virile adj having manly nature/properties/qualities AHD/W7
  virtue n morality, conformity to standard of right AHD/W7
  virtuosa n female virtuoso AHD/W7
  virtuoso n savant, experimenter/investigator in arts/sciences AHD/W7
  warnel n wart, hard skin tumor OED
  weltanschauung n philosophy of life AHD
  weltschmerz n sadness re: world's evils AHD
  werewolf n lycanthrope, lit. man-wolf LRC
  wergeld/weregild n recompense, rank-based price set on person's life AHD/OED
  world n earthly human existence AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: warld/wrald n.fem world ASD
  wer n.masc man, male person ASD
Dutch: wereld n world TLL
Old Saxon: wer n.masc man, male person ASD
  werold n.fem world, men, lifetime ASD
Old High German: wer n.masc man, male person W7/ASD
  weralt n.fem world, earth; time, age W7/ASD
  werwolf n werewolf W7
German: Welt n.fem world TLL
  Weltanschauung n.fem weltanschauung, lit. world-view W7
  Weltschmerz n.masc weltschmerz, lit. world-pain W7
  Werwolf n.masc werewolf LRC
N-Germanic  
Icelandic: verr n.masc man, male person ASD
Danish: verden n world TLL
Swedish: värld n world TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: waír n.str.masc man, male person LRC
Italic  
Latin: curia n.fem assembly of Roman people W7
  decemvir n.masc one of college of ten W7
  decuria n.fem group of ten W7
  decurio, decurionis n.masc decurion W7
  duumvir n.masc one of college of two W7
  triumvir n.masc one of college of three W7
  vir, viri n.masc man LRC
  virago, viraginis n.fem virago, amazon, heroine W7
  virilis adj virile, re: man W7
  virtus, virtutis n.fem virtue, manly qualities W7
  vis, vis n.fem strength, power LRC
Late Latin: virtuosus adj virtuous W7
Old French: virtu n.fem virtue W7
Middle French: viril adj virile, manly W7
Italian: virtuoso adj good, honest, virtuous W7
  virtuoso n.masc skilled/virtuous man W7
Baltic  
Lithuanian: výras n.masc man, husband LRC
Indic  
Sanskrit: vīra n man W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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