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Indo-European Lexicon

Old French Reflex Index

Below we list 1504 unique Old French reflex spellings (words and affixes) in an alphabetic order suitable for the language family. Every spelling is linked to one or more pages, each showing a Proto-Indo-European etymon from which the reflex is derived along with other reflexes (in Old French or other languages) derived from the same PIE etymon. A multi-morpheme reflex may, like English werewolf, be derived from multiple PIE etyma; or a single spelling may, like English bear or lie, represent multiple reflexes derived from different PIE etyma.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Italic: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | Y

ReflexEtyma
aageaiu̯-
ab-apo-
abandoner2. bhā-
abanduner2. bhā-
abesteges-
abjureri̯eu̯os-
abolir2. al-
abondant9. au̯(e)-
aboter1. bhā̆u-
abraserbh(e)reu-
abridgiermreg̑hu-
abrigiermreg̑hu-
abstenir1. ten-
abuter1. bhā̆u-
accentkan-
accessed-
accident1. k̑ad-
accosterkost-
acertainer4. (s)ker-
acerteiner4. (s)ker-
acointier2. g̑en-
acolite2. sem-
acomplir1. pel-
acont2. peu-
aconter2. peu-
acorderk̑ered-
acortk̑ered-
acoustrersi̯ū-
acrostiche2. ak̑-, steigh-
acteag̑-
actualag̑-
ad-1. ad-
adageēg̑-
adamantdemə-
adjectifi̯ē-
admettresmeit-
adolescent2. al-
adopter2. op-
adourerōr-
adourner1. ar-
adultere1. al-
adventgā-
adverbe6. u̯er-
advers3h. u̯er-
advocatu̯ek-
afaire2. dhē-
afermer2. dher-
affable2. bhā-
affection2. dhē-
affiaunce1. bheidh-
affier1. bheidh-
affluentbhleu-
agonieag̑-
agreer4. ger(ə)-
agrever2. ger-
agu2. ak̑-
agüeté2. ak̑-
aider2. i̯eu-
aigre2. ak̑-
aigremoinear(e)-g̑-
aileag̑-
air1. u̯er-
ajoindre2. i̯eu-
ajoster2. i̯eu-
ajourner1. dei-
alarme1. ar-
alas3. lē(i)-
albadealbho-
albornealbho-
aleeambhi
alegierag̑-
alerambhi
alesneēlā
alien1. al-
alier4. leig-
alignerlī̆-no-
alleguerag̑-
almarie1. ar-
alterer1. al-
altre2. an-
alumalu-
alunalu-
amaistriermeg̑(h)-
amatistemédhu
ambassadeurag̑-
ambesambhi
ambition1. ei-
amblerambhi
ambsaceambhi
amendermendā
amener1. men-
amettresmeit-
amirer1. (s)mei-
amisambhi, i̯ē-
amitambhi, i̯ē-
amiteam(m)a
amont1. men-
amonter1. men-
amortir4. mer-
amouram(m)a
ample1. am-
amplifier1. am-, 2. dhē-
ancestresed-
angle2. ank-
anguisseang̑h-
animosite3. an(ə)-
annexe1. ned-
annexer1. ned-
annuelat-
annuller1.
anoi2. od-
anoncier1. neu-
anteam(m)a
anti-ant-s
antollierok-
apaierpei̯(ə)-
apaisierpā̆k̑-
apalir6. pel-
apanagepā-
apanerpā-
aparail2d. per-
apareillier2d. per-
apeler2a. pel-
aperitif5. u̯er-
apert5. u̯er-
apetit2. pet-
aplierplek̑-
apoplexie2. plāk-
aporter2b. per-
apostasiestā-
apostle3. stel-
apotecaire2. dhē-
apprehendreghend-
apprentisghend-
approuvir2a. per-
approver2a. per-
aprehendreghend-
aprendreghend-
aprentisghend-
après3. per-
apretier2c. per-
apriser2c. per-
aprisier2c. per-
aprochier2a. per-
aprover2a. per-
apte1. ap-
aquatiqueakā-
aqueductakā-, deuk-
aquiterkei̯ə-
arablear(ə)-
araisner1. ar-
arangier3. (s)ker-
aranier1. ar-
arayerreidh-
arbaleste2. gel-
arbeleste2. gel-
arbelestre2. gel-
arbreer(ə)d-
arcarqu-
archeareq-, arqu-
archerarqu-
archierarqu-
architravetrē̆b-
-ard3. kar-
ardantā̆s-
ardorā̆s-
ardourā̆s-
ardreā̆s-
ardurā̆s-
areerreidh-
areireidh-
areierreidh-
arengier3. (s)ker-
areststā-
aresterstā-
areyerreidh-
argentar(e)-g̑-
argentinar(e)-g̑-
arguerar(e)-g̑-
ariere-ban2. bhā-, koro-s
arismetique1. ar-
aristocracie1. ar-
ariver1. rei-
armaire1. ar-
armarie1. ar-
armature1. ar-
armee1. ar-
armer1. ar-
armes1. ar-
armeure1. ar-
armure1. ar-
arpent2a. per-
arriver1. rei-
arsā̆s-
arsenik1. g̑hel-
arsonā̆s-
arsounā̆s-
arsunā̆s-
art1. ar-
arteillerie1. ap-
artere1. u̯er-
article1. ar-
artifice2. dhē-
artillerie1. ap-
artillier1. ap-
artiqueŕ̥k̑þo-s
artiste1. ar-
asaillir4. sel-
asalir4. sel-
asalt4. sel-
ascrire4. (s)ker-
asembler2. sem-
asentersent-
asetsā-
asezsā-
asigner1. sek-
asisesed-
asneers-
asoagersu̯ād-
asoldre2. leu-
asouagersu̯ād-
assaiag̑-
assaisoner2. sē(i)-
assalt4. sel-
assambler2. sem-
assaut4. sel-
assemblee2. sem-
assembler2. sem-
assentersent-
asseoirsed-
assessersed-
assetsā-
assezsā-
assigner1. sek-
assisesed-
assisterstā-
assoiler2. leu-
assoillier2. leu-
assoldre2. leu-
assorter4. ser-
assouagiersu̯ād-
astrelabe(s)lā̆g-
astronomie1. nem-, 2. stē̆r-
asuagersu̯ād-
atacher2. (s)teg-
atachier2. (s)teg-
ataindretag-
ataquer2. (s)teg-
atendre1. ten-
atestertrei-
atorne3. ter-
atorner3. ter-
atourner3. ter-
attaquer2. (s)teg-
atteindretag-
attorne3. ter-
attorner3. ter-
attrition3. ter-
aturner3. ter-
Auberonalbho-
aubornealbho-
aubreer(ə)d-
auctoritéau̯eg-
audience8. au̯-
augmenterau̯eg-
aumail1. mel-
auncestresed-
auncienant-s
aunteam(m)a
auricle2. ōus-
austeresaus-
autentiquesen-
auteurau̯eg-
autorau̯eg-
autoriserau̯eg-
autoritéau̯eg-
autre1. al-, 2. an-
autrui1. al-
aval7. u̯el-
avaler7. u̯el-
avancierant-s
avantant-s
avant-gardeant-s
avantpié2. pē̆d-
avauntageant-s
avengierdeik̑-
avenirgā-
aventuregā-
averer11. u̯er-
averrer11. u̯er-
avertir3h. u̯er-
avis2. u̯(e)id-
aviser2. u̯(e)id-
avoereu̯egh-
avoesonu̯ek-
avogleok-
avoglerok-
avoirdupois1. (s)pen(-d)-
avouereu̯egh-
axiomeag̑-
azimut2. mei-
azoc3. gei̯-
baibadi̯os
baiardbadi̯os
bailbak-
baillebak-
baillifbak-
bal2. gel-
balade2. gel-
balancedu̯ō(u)
bald3. bhel-
bale3. bhel-
balene3. bhel-
baliebak-
balle3. bhel-
baller2. gel-
ban2. bhā-
banal2. bhā-
bancbheg-
bandebhendh-
banere1. bhā-
baneret1. bhā-
banerolle1. bhā-
banir2. bhā-
bannir2. bhā-
banquetbheg-
baptiser1. gēbh-
barbacane5. u̯er-
barbebhardhā
barbelbhardhā
barbeorbhardhā
barbierbhardhā
bargaignebherg̑h-
bargaignierbherg̑h-
bargainebherg̑h-
barre3. bher-
basegā-
batbheid-
bataillebhāt-
batauntbhāt-
batelbheid-
batrebhāt-
battebhāt-
baud3. bhel-
beatitude2. deu-
beauté2. deu-
bedelbheudh-
bel2. deu-
belefroibhereg̑h-, prāi-
bendebhendh-
benderbhendh-
benediciondeik̑-, 2. deu-
benefice2. deu-, 2. dhē-
benevolent2. deu-, 2. u̯el-
benigne1. g̑en-
berefreitbhereg̑h-, prāi-
berfraibhereg̑h-, prāi-
berfraybhereg̑h-, prāi-
berfroibhereg̑h-, prāi-
*beseldu̯ō(u)
bezaharpā-
biau2. deu-
biauté2. deu-
bienfait2. deu-, 2. dhē-
biere1. bher-
billette2. b(e)u-
biscuitpek-
biseldu̯ō(u)
blamer2. mel-
blancbheleg-
blanchebheleg-
blanchirbheleg-
blanketbheleg-
blanketebheleg-
blefbhlē-u̯o-s
blestre2. bhlei-
blondbhlendh-
blondebhlendh-
blostre2. bhlei-
bluebhlē-u̯o-s
bodnebh(e)reu-
boelgu̯et-
boelinebhāg̑hú-s
boillir2. b(e)u-
boillon2. b(e)u-
bolinebhāg̑hú-s
bon2. deu-
bonnebh(e)reu-
bonté2. deu-
borcbhereg̑h-
bordebheredh-
bordelbheredh-
borderbheredh-
bordeurebheredh-
bordurebheredh-
borgbhereg̑h-
borjoisbhereg̑h-
boter1. bhā̆u-
boterez1. bhā̆u-
botique2. dhē-
boton1. bhā̆u-
bouchierbhū̆g̑o-s
boud3. bhel-
boule2. b(e)u-
bouter1. bhā̆u-
bracemreg̑hu-
brachetbhrag-
bracieremreg̑hu-
braire1. bhreg̑-
branbh(e)reu-
brandbh(e)reu-
brandirbh(e)reu-
brantbh(e)reu-
braonbh(e)reu-
brasmreg̑hu-
braser2. bher-
brasier2. bher-
brefmreg̑hu-
brese2. bher-
bresmebherək̑-
brisierbhrēi-
broetbh(e)reu-
broezbh(e)reu-
brun5. bher-
brunette5. bher-
buefgou-
buglegou-
bulle2. b(e)u-
burcbhereg̑h-
burgeisbhereg̑h-
burnete5. bher-
but1. bhā̆u-
caroleau-lo-s
cærsegras-
cas1. k̑ad-
cave1. k̑eu-
celerer4. k̑el-
celle4. k̑el-
cenith2. mei-
ceptre2. (s)kē̆p-
cercle3. (s)ker-
certain4. (s)ker-
cessersed-
chacier2a. per-
chaieresed-
chalengierkēl-
chaloir1. k̑el-
chambrekam-er-
chance1. k̑ad-
changier(s)kamb-
Chanteclerkan-
chapitlekap-ut
chapitrekap-ut
char2. k̑ers-
chargier2. k̑ers-
chariot2. k̑ers-
charitékā-
charmekan-
chastek̑es-
chemise3. k̑em-
cheoir1. k̑ad-
cherirkā-
chiefkap-ut
chierkā-
chimbeg̑embh-
choisg̑eus-
cholleg(e)u-lo-
chute1. k̑ad-
ciment(s)k(h)ai-
ciong̑ēi-
circum-3. (s)ker-
cirurgieg̑hesor-, 2. u̯erg̑-
cirurgieng̑hesor-
cité1. k̑ei-
clamer6. kel-
clauseklēu-
clavierklēu-
cler6. kel-
clerc3. kel-
cloistreklēu-
cloreklēu-
closklēu-
cocatris4. (s)kel-
cointe2. g̑en-
col1. kel-
coler1. kel-
colet1. kel-
colour4. k̑el-
coltre1. (s)kel-
com-kom
comandermə-r
combe2. keu-
commun2. mei-
compagniepā-
compagnonpā-
compainpā-
compasser1. pet-
composteapo-
conceivrekap-
concile6. kel-
concordek̑ered-
condemner
conduitdeuk-
conestablestā-
confire2. dhē-
confirmer2. dher-
confondre1. g̑heu-
conforterbhereg̑h-
conjureri̯eu̯os-
connoisseor2. g̑en-
connoistre2. g̑en-
conoissance2. g̑en-
conoistre2. g̑en-
conscienceskē̆i-
conté1. ei-
contenir1. ten-
contréekom
conveieru̯eg̑h-
convertir3h. u̯er-
cople1. ap-
coquillek̑onkho-
coragek̑ered-
corde5. g̑her-
cormarengmori
corne1. k̑er-
cornere1. k̑er-
corone3. (s)ker-
coroner3. (s)ker-
correerreidh-
cors1. krep-
corsage1. krep-
corset1. krep-
cort4. g̑her-
corteis4. g̑her-
corteisie4. g̑her-
cortil4. g̑her-
cortillage4. g̑her-
cortoier4. g̑her-
cosinsu̯esor-
costekost-
costellettekost-
couper3. kel-
courre2. k̑ers-
course2. k̑ers-
coursier2. k̑ers-
court4. g̑her-
cousturesi̯ū-
coveitiékeu̯əp-
covenantgā-
covenirgā-
coventgā-
covrirkap-ut
crape3. ger-
creanterk̑ered-
cressagras-
crevace1. ker-
crever1. ker-
cristal1. kreu-
croc3. ger-
croche3. ger-
croupe3. ger-
crucifierdhēig-
crue3. ger-
cruel1. kreu-
crupiere3. ger-
cuer4. g̑her-, k̑ered-
cuevrechiefkap-ut
cul2. (s)keu-
curant2. k̑ers-
curekois-
custumese-
dalfingelbh-
dam
damage
damedem-
damiseledem-
dampner
dangierdem-
danterdemə-
dauberalbho-
de-de-
debilite2. bel-
debonaire2. deu-
debrisierbhrēi-
deceivrekap-
Decembredek̑m̥
defendre2. ghen(-ə)-
defense2. ghen(-ə)-
deffaire2. dhē-
deffesant2. dhē-
defier1. bheidh-
deforcierbhereg̑h-
defouler2. pū̆-
deignier1. dek̑-
deintié1. dek̑-
delaier1. leip-
delitable1. lēk-
delivrer1. leudh-
demener1. men-
demorer(s)mer-
denier1.
denoncier1. neu-
dented-
des-de-
desarmer1. ar-
desbauchier5. bhel-
desciple1. dek̑-
desconfire2. dhē-
desconfit2. dhē-
desdeign1. dek̑-
desdeignier1. dek̑-
desfacier2. dhē-
desgagieru̯adh-
desirer1. su̯eid-
desmaiiermagh-
desnoer1. ned-
despirespek̑-
despitspek̑-
despoillier1. (s)p(h)el-
desputer2. peu-
desrengier3. (s)ker-
destendre1. ten-
destinerstā-
destor3. ter-
destorner3. ter-
destourber1. tu̯er-
destre1. dek̑-
destreindre2. streig-
destresse2. streig-
destrier1. dek̑-
destruire5. ster-
desvuidier1. eu-
detteghabh-
deveirghabh-
devoirghabh-
devoteu̯egh-
diadèmedē-
dialogueleg̑-
diete3. ai-
digneté1. dek̑-
discorderk̑ered-
ditiédeik̑-
ditierdeik̑-
diviseru̯eidh-
dol3. del-
dongierdem-
donterdemə-
doubledu̯ō(u)
douterdu̯ō(u)
dozainedek̑m̥
dozedek̑m̥
dragonderk̑-
draonclederk̑-
draonclerderk̑-
ducdeuk-
dum4. dheu-
durer3. deu-
écuskē̆i-
effreiprāi-
eir1. g̑hē-
eleag̑-
embraciermreg̑hu-
empereor2d. per-
emprendreghend-
empriseghend-
en-1. en
enamoureram(m)a
enceindre1. kenk-
enceinte1. kenk-
encenskand-
encontrerkom
encrochier3. ger-
endentered-
enditerdeik̑-
enemiam(m)a
enfilergheiə-
enforcierbhereg̑h-
engagieru̯adh-
engin1. g̑en-
enhaucier2. al-
enjoindre2. i̯eu-
enjoirgāu-
enke2. k̑ēu-
enoindreong-
enointong-
ensuivre1. sek-
enterrerters-
entrechangier(s)kamb-
entreditdeik̑-
entreprendreghend-
entrepreneurghend-
entrer1. en
enui2. od-
enuier2. od-
enveiu̯eg̑h-
envie2. u̯(e)id-
envoieru̯eg̑h-
epistle3. stel-
erbeghrē-
erbierghrē-
eremite5. er-
erre1. ei-
errer1. ei-, 2. ere-s-
errour2. ere-s-
es-eg̑hs
esbraserbh(e)reu-
Escalibor1. kal-
escarlate1. sek-
escheckþē(i)-
eschekkþē(i)-
escheoir1. k̑ad-
escheqkþē(i)-
eschequierkþē(i)-
escheskþē(i)-
eschete1. k̑ad-
esclave1. k̑leu-
escolerseg̑h-
escondre2. dhē-
escons2. dhē-
esconse2. dhē-
escorce4. (s)ker-
escorgierreig-
escourreku̯ēt-
escru1. kreu-
esfaierprāi-
esforcierbhereg̑h-
esfortbhereg̑h-
esfreerprāi-
esfreiprāi-
eslegierag̑-
esloigner5. del-
espace3. sp(h)ē(i)-
espandre1. pet-
espeesp(h)ē-
espeersp(h)ē-
espeller(s)pel-
espicespek̑-
espierspek̑-
espousspend-
espousespend-
esquierskē̆i-
essaiag̑-
essil3. ā̆l-
estau̯es-
establestā-
estache2. (s)teg-
estachier2. (s)teg-
estagestā-
estal3. stel-
estaler3. stel-
estancestā-
estanchonstā-
estatstā-
estivalai-dh-
estoner1. (s)ten-
estonier1. (s)ten-
estorerstā-
estorie2. u̯(e)id-
estourdirtrozdos-
estoveir1. op-
estraié5. ster-
estraier5. ster-
estrangeeg̑hs
estreit2. streig-
estriquier4. ster-
estublestē̆ib(h)-
estudie1. (s)teu-
esveudier1. eu-
esvuidier1. eu-
eswardeir8. u̯er-
eswarder8. u̯er-
evierakā-
ex-eg̑hs
exil3. ā̆l-
exploitplek̑-
expres3. per-
expresser3. per-
fable2. bhā-
fabliau2. bhā-
face2. dhē-
façon2. dhē-
fae2. bhā-
faerie2. bhā-
faie2. bhā-
faindredheig̑h-
faire2. dhē-
fame2. bhā-
fantasme1. bhā-
fealte1. bheidh-
feblebhlē-
feelte1. bheidh-
feign-dheig̑h-
feindredheig̑h-
feintdheig̑h-
feintedheig̑h-
feiredhēs-
fel1. g̑hel-, 1. pel-
felon1. g̑hel-
ferme2. dher-
fermer2. dher-
festedhēs-
feurrepā-
fiance1. bheidh-
fiancier1. bheidh-
fief2. pek̑-
-fier2. dhē-
fier1. bheidh-
fiersg̑hu̯ē̆r-
figuredheig̑h-
filgheiə-
fisiquebheu-
flairbhrag-
flairierbhrag-
flajol3. bhel-
flajolet3. bhel-
flambebheleg-
flamberbheleg-
flamblebheleg-
flamboyerbheleg-
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