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Indo-European Lexicon

Old Icelandic Reflex Index

Below we list 756 unique Old Icelandic reflex spellings (words and affixes) in an alphabetic order suitable for the language family. Every spelling is linked to one or more pages, each showing a Proto-Indo-European etymon from which the reflex is derived along with other reflexes (in Old Icelandic or other languages) derived from the same PIE etymon. A multi-morpheme reflex may, like English werewolf, be derived from multiple PIE etyma; or a single spelling may, like English bear or lie, represent multiple reflexes derived from different PIE etyma.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

N-Germanic: A | Á | B | D | Ð | E | F | G | H | I | Í | J | K | L | M | N | O | Ó | R | S | T | U | Ú | V | Þ | Æ | Ö=Ǫ | Ø | Œ

ReflexEtyma
afapo-
afar-apo-
af-āted-
afrapo-
agiagh-
akaag̑-
akrsag̑ro-s
ala2. al-
aldinn2. al-
aldr2. al-
ald-rœðr1. ar-
ambāttag̑-
and-ant-s
anda3. an(ə)-
andi3. an(ə)-
angrang̑h-
aptrapo-
askaā̆s-
at1. ad-
a-troð3. der-
auk4. au-
aukaau̯eg-
Aunmundr7. au̯-
aur-apo-
aur-falrapo-
avar-apo-
axag(e)sī, 2. ak̑-
ā-4. an-
āssansu-
āted-
āttēik-
ātt-rœðr1. ar-
baðbhē-
baðmrbheu-
baldinn3. bhel-
Baldr3. bhel-
ballr3. bhel-
barðbhardhā
barmr1. bher-
barrbhares-, bhares-
bauta1. bhā̆u-
bāl1. bhel-
beiða1. bheidh-
beiskrbheid-
belgjabhelg̑h-
belgrbhelg̑h-
bella3. bhel-
benbhen-
benda1. bhā-, bhendh-
bendibhendh-
benibhen-
bera1. bher-
bergbhereg̑h-
Beyla2. b(e)u-
beysta1. bhā̆u-
biðja2. bhedh-
bindabhendh-
birtibherəg̑-
bitrbheid-
bīða1. bheidh-
bītabheid-
bjargbhereg̑h-
bjargabherg̑h-
bjarkanbherəg̑-
bjartrbherəg̑-
bjōðabheudh-
bjórr5. bher-
bjǫrkbherəg̑-
bjǫrn5. bher-
blandabhlendh-
blautr2. bhlēu-
blauþr2. bhlēu-
blār3. bhel-
blāsa3. bhel-
blāstr3. bhel-
blesi1. bhel-
blindabhlendh-
blindrbhlendh-
blīðr1. bhlē̆i-
blōð4. bhel-
blōð-drefjardhrebh-
blōt3. bhel-
blōta3. bhel-
blōt-goð3. bhel-
blundabhlendh-
blundrbhlendh-
blys1. bhlēu-
blǣr3. bhel-
bokkrbhū̆g̑o-s
bolginnbhelg̑h-
boli3. bhel-
bora3. bher-
borðbheredh-
borr3. bher-
bōkbhāgó-s
bōk-stafrbhāgó-s
bólbheu-
bōlbheu-
bōla2. b(e)u-
bragrbhlagh-men-
braigd1. bhreg̑-
brak1. bhreg̑-
brakan1. bhreg̑-
brandrbh(e)reu-
brasabh(e)reu-
brasaðbh(e)reu-
brattrbhren-
brauðbh(e)reu-
brādna2. bher-
brekkabhren-
brennabh(e)reu-
brinnabh(e)reu-
briōta1. bhrē̆u-
brjábherək̑-
broðbh(e)reu-
brōðirbhrā́ter-
bruggabh(e)reu-
brundrbh(e)reu-
brunibh(e)reu-
brunnrbh(e)reu-
brúnn5. bher-
*bryggjabh(e)reu-
brǣða2. bher-
bukkrbhū̆g̑o-s
bunkibheng̑h-
burr1. bher-
burstbhares-
bheu-
būabheu-
būðbheu-
būrbheu-
byggbheu-
byggvabheu-
bȳrbheu-
bölbheleu-
bǫllr3. bhel-
bǫrkr2. bhreg̑-
bǫrrbheu-
bøkrbhāgó-s
bœrbheu-
dagrā̆g̑her-
dalkrdhelg-
dasaðr3. dhē-
dasast3. dhē-
dauði2. dheu-
dauðr2. dheu-
daufr4. dheu-
daunn4. dheu-
dāð2. dhē-
dārvi-deru-
dási3. dhē-
Dellingr2. dhel-
dengja3. dhen-
deyða2. dheu-
deyfa4. dheu-
deyfþ4. dheu-
deyja2. dheu-
digrdheig̑h-
digulldheig̑h-
dilkrdhē(i)-
dimmadhem-
dimmrdhem-
dīkdhēig-
dīkidhēig-
dofinn4. dheu-
dolgdhelgh-
dōttirdhug(h)əter-
drafdhrebh-
drafnadhrebh-
draugr2. dhreugh-
draumr2. dhreugh-
driftdhreibh-
drit5. dher-
drīfdhreibh-
drīfadhreibh-
drottning2. dher-
drōtt2. dher-
drōttinn2. dher-, tēu-
dryn-hraun3. dher-
drynja3. dher-
drȳgja2. dhreugh-
dvala4. dheu-
dvalað4. dheu-
dvīna2. dheu-
dyrrdhu̯ē̆r-
dȳja4. dheu-
dǫgg1. dheu-
døgnā̆g̑her-
døgrā̆g̑her-
døkkvadhem-
ðar1. to-
ðat1. to-
ef3. e-
efa3. e-
egg2. ak̑-
eiaiu̯-
ein-dagiā̆g̑her-
eirai̯os-, 2. ais-
eirð2. ais-
eiskraaisk-
ekeg̑-
eld-stōstā-
ella1. al-
ellar1. al-
elli2. al-
elligar1. al-
ellor1. al-
ellri2. al-
embættaag̑-
embættiag̑-
enda-laussant-s
endiant-s
endirant-s
endrant-s
ennant-s
enniant-s
ern3. er-
etaed-
etjaed-
eygjaok-
faðmr1. pet-
fallphō̆l-
farmr2b. per-
farri2d. per-
fellpeli-s-
fellaphō̆l-
felms-fullr1. pel-
felmtr1. pel-
ferja2b. per-
fimrpei-m(i)-
fīfrildi1. pel-
fjall3b. pel-
fjōrir-tigerketu̯er-
fjōrirtigerdek̑m̥
fjōrtāndek̑m̥, ketu̯er-
flaknaplēk̑-
flaskaplē-
flatrplā̆t-
fláplēk̑-
flóa7. pel-
flóipleu-
flóna7. pel-
fóðrpā-
fōt-borðbheredh-
frakkrpreg-
frétt4. perk̑-
friðaprāi-
friðillprāi-
fríðaprāi-
frjáprāi-
frjálsprāi-
frjó2d. per-
frjóa2d. per-
frjó-ligr2d. per-
frjór2d. per-
frjó-samr2d. per-
fræ2d. per-
frændiprāi-
fúrrpeu̯ōr
fylgsni3b. pel-
fæla1. pel-
fæling1. pel-
gaflghebh-el-
gangag̑hengh-
gangrg̑hengh-
garn5. g̑her-
gaurrghou-ro-s
ghou̯(ē)-
1. g̑hē-, g̑hengh-
gásg̑han-s-
gātaghend-
gāttg̑hengh-
geiga2. g̑hē-
geigr2. g̑hē-
geil-igrghoilo-s
geiska-fullrgheis-
gelda2. g̑hel-
geldr2. g̑hel-
geragher-
getaghend-
geymaghou̯(ē)-
geymdirghou̯(ē)-
geysa1. g̑heu-
gil-kerghoilo-s
gīna2. g̑hē-
gīslgheidh-
gjā2. g̑hē-
gjǫfghabh-
gjǫrðg̑herdh-
glaðr1. g̑hel-
glamghleu-
glaumrghleu-
glámr1. g̑hel-
gleymaghleu-
glit1. g̑hel-
glīkr2. lē̆ig-
gljá1. g̑hel-
glóa1. g̑hel-
glóð1. g̑hel-
glymjaghleu-
glymrghleu-
glæa1. g̑hel-
gnagaghen-
gnastanghen-
gniðaghen-
gnístghen-
gnístaghen-
gnístanghen-
gnōgrenek̑-
gnúaghen-
gnœgjaenek̑-
gramir2. ghrem-
gramr2. ghrem-
grandighren-
granna2. erə-
granni2. erə-
grautr2. ghrēu-
grāðr1. g̑her-
grāðugr1. g̑her-
gremja2. ghrem-
grimmr2. ghrem-
grjōt2. ghrēu-
gróðighrē-
gróðrghrē-
grónaghrē-
grufla1. ghrebh-, 2. ghrebh-
grunnghren-
grunnrghren-
græfr2. ghrebh-
grǫf2. ghrebh-
grǫn3. gher-
gulr1. g̑hel-
gumaghou̯(ē)-
gunnr2. ghen(-ə)-
Gymirg̑hðem-
gyrðag̑herdh-
gyrðillg̑herdh-
gæfaghabh-
gæfrghabh-
görn5. g̑her-
gœl-igrghoilo-s
hafrkapro-
haftkap-
hag-stœðr3. stel-
hald5. kel-
halfa1. (s)kel-
halfr1. (s)kel-
hamast3. k̑em-
hams3. k̑em-
hangak̑enk-
harpa(s)kerb(h)-
hastarligak̑ēi-bh-
hastarligrk̑ēi-bh-
hatrk̑ād-
hauk-staldr3. stel-
hár2. k̑ā̆k-, 2. keu-
hāss3. kā̆i-
heið(s)kāi-
heiðr(s)kāi-
heita3. kā̆i-
heitr3. kā̆i-
hengjak̑enk-
her-baldr3. bhel-
herða3. kar-
himinn3. k̑em-
hirðirk̑erdho-
hiti3. kā̆i-
hjala6. kel-
hjalmr4. k̑el-
hjarni1. k̑er-
hjarsi1. k̑er-
hjartak̑ered-
hjól1. kel-
hjörtr1. k̑er-
hler1. k̑leu-
Hlið-skjálf1. (s)kel-
hlust1. k̑leu-
hlyða1. k̑leu-
hodd2. (s)keu-
horn1. k̑er-
hostikās-
hōfkap-
hófrkā̆pho-
hrár1. kreu-
hreðr4. (s)ker-
hrein-hjartaðrk̑ered-, 4. (s)ker-
hreinn4. (s)ker-
hrjósa1. kreu-
hrúðr1. kreu-
hug-stœðr3. stel-
hulda4. k̑el-
hunangkenəkó-
hund-rað1. ar-
hūð2. (s)keu-
hvalr(s)kalo-s
hvatko-
hverr2. ker-
hvetjakē̆d-
hvéko-
hvél1. kel-
hylja4. k̑el-
hylrkau-l-
hæli4. k̑el-
hæll2. k̑ā̆k-
hættak̑enk-
höð-k̑at-
hörund4. (s)ker-
hœfakap-
ið-eti
if3. e-
inni1. en
inri1. en
ī1. en
jarkna-steinnar(e)-g̑-
jar-tegnar(e)-g̑-
jōrek̑u̯o-s
kalda3. gel(ə)-
kaldr3. gel(ə)-
kalfi1. gel-
kalfr1. gel-
kambrg̑embh-
karlg̑er-
kārnag̑ā̆r-
kelda3. gel(ə)-
kinn2. g̑enu-
kjaptrg̑ep(h)-
kjōsag̑eus-
kjöptrg̑ep(h)-
klaki3. gel(ə)-
klāpr1. gel-
kleif1. gel-
klettr1. gel-
klé1. gel-
klif1. gel-
klǫpp1. gel-
kneikjagen-
knē1. g̑enu-
knē-beðr2. bhedh-
knytjagen-
knýtagen-
koddi3. gei̯-
kofigēu-
konungr1. g̑en-
korg̑eus-
kostag̑eus-
kostrg̑eus-
kólna3. gel(ə)-
krá3. ger-
kremja1. ger-
kring3. ger-
kringja3. ger-
kringr3. ger-
krotagerebh-
kryppil3. ger-
krœkja3. ger-
kuikr3. gei̯-
kul3. gel(ə)-
kuldi3. gel(ə)-
kunna2. g̑en-
kunnr2. g̑en-
kurfrgerebh-
kúfóttrgēu-
kūþr2. g̑en-
kvāngē̆nā
kveðja2. get-
kveisageid(h)-
kveld1. gel-
kvern2. ger-
kviðr3. gei̯-, 2. get-
kviðugr3. gei̯-
kvængē̆nā
kvænagē̆nā
kvǫl1. gel-
kylr3. gel(ə)-
kyn1. g̑en-
kǫrg̑ā̆r-
lang-ǣraiu̯-
laxlak̑-
leika3. leig-
ljōmileuk-
ljúfrleubh-
lok1. leug-
malmr1. mel-
malrmolko-
mann-kyn1. g̑en-, manu-s
marrmarko-
māl-dagiā̆g̑her-
mek1. me-
mēr1. me-
mik1. me-
Mīmir(s)mer-
mjaltirmē̆lg̑-
mjaltrmē̆lg̑-
mjǫlkmē̆lg̑-
Mjǫllnir2. meldh-
molkamē̆lg̑-
myrkvi2. mer-
Myrk-viðr2. mer-, u̯idhu-
mækirmedhi-
naðrnē-tr-
naðranē-tr-
nafli1. enebh-
nāl(s)nē-
niðra1. en
niðrað1. en
nōgrenek̑-
nœgjaenek̑-
ofupo
of-āted-
ok4. au-
onð3. an(ə)-
ōastagh-
ōkrau̯eg-
rann2. erə-
rinna3. er-
rista1. rei-
rīm1. ar-
runi3. er-
rǫk2. rē̆k-
røkja2. rē̆k-
røkkrregos-
sam-kvæðr2. get-
2. sē(i)-
sáð2. sē(i)-
segl2. sē̆k-
selja3. sel-
sigrseg̑h-
skafa2. (s)kē̆p-
skal2. (s)kel-
skel1. (s)kel-
skera4. (s)ker-
skjōta2. (s)keud-
skjǫldr1. (s)kel-
skōf2. (s)kē̆p-
skōfir2. (s)kē̆p-
skōr2. (s)keu-
skugg-sjā2. (s)keu-
skuld2. (s)kel-
skuldr2. (s)kel-
skulu2. (s)kel-
skulum2. (s)kel-
skūrk̑ēu̯ero-
skygn1. keu-
skyld2. (s)kel-
skyldi2. (s)kel-
skǫr4. (s)ker-
sláttrslak-
sleikjaleig̑h-
slēttr3. lei-
slīur3. lei-
sloðra(s)leu-
smalimēlo-
snara2. (s)ner-
snarpr(s)nerb-
snerasnēu-
snerpa(s)nerb-
snorkinn2. (s)ner-
snuggasnēu-
snūasnēu-
snūðigrsnēu-
snūðrsnēu-
snūinnsnēu-
snyðjasnēu-
sofna1. su̯ep-
sollr1. su̯el(-k)-
speld1. (s)p(h)el-
spík1. (s)p(h)ē̆i-
spjald1. (s)p(h)el-
spjall(s)pel-
spjalla(s)pel-
spǫlr1. (s)p(h)el-
staðrstā-
staka1. (s)teg-, 2. (s)teg-
staki2. (s)teg-
stallr3. stel-
standastā-
staup(s)teig-
stauta1. (s)teu-
stāl3. stel-
steytr1. (s)teu-
stikill(s)teig-
stirðr7. (s)ter-n-
stīflastē̆ib(h)-
stjaki2. (s)teg-
stjarna2. stē̆r-
storð7. (s)ter-n-
stōðstā-
stōllstā-
strá5. ster-
stūtr1. (s)teu-
stǫðstā-
stǫðullstā-
stœðastā-
stœðrstā-, 3. stel-
sumar3. sem-
so(s)
súga1. seu-
súpa1. seu-
súrrsū-ro-
svaglau̯ā̆gh-
svārr1. u̯er-
svefja1. su̯ep-
svefna1. su̯ep-
svelga1. su̯el(-k)-
sylgr1. su̯el(-k)-
sæði2. sē(i)-
sœgru̯ā̆gh-
tað
tamrdemə-
taugdeuk-
taumrdeuk-
tāgdenk̑-
tārdak̑ru-
teðja
teinndu̯ō(u)
teitr1. dei-
temjademə-
teygjadeuk-
tilr2. ad-
timbrdem-
timbradem-
tindred-
titra3. der-
tīudek̑m̥
tīunddek̑m̥
tjald3. del-
tjalda3. del-
tjaraderu-
-tjāndek̑m̥
tjōadeuk-
tjón1. der-
tjǫrnderk̑-
togdeuk-
togadeuk-
tolfdu̯ō(u)
toptdem-
trað3. der-
traustderu-
treðja3. der-
trefill4. der-
trefr4. der-
trēderu-
troð3. der-
troða3. der-
trosderu-
trūderu-
trūaderu-
trǫð3. der-
tröf4. der-
tungadn̥g̑hū
tuttugudu̯ō(u)
tvādu̯ō(u)
tveirdu̯ō(u)
tvennrdu̯ō(u)
tvinnrdu̯ō(u)
tvis-tradu̯ō(u)
tvis-vardu̯ō(u)
tvī-faldrdu̯ō(u)
tvǣrdu̯ō(u)
tygilldeuk-
tyrvideru-
tys-vardu̯ō(u)
týna1. der-
týnast1. der-
týning1. der-
tȳr1. dei-
tǫngdenk̑-
ulfru̯l̥kos
unzant-s
ū-borinn1. bher-
ūhreinn4. (s)ker-
ū-kūðr2. g̑en-
ū-kvæði2. get-
ū-kvæntrgē̆nā
vana1. eu-
vangru̯e-n-gh-
vanr1. eu-
varp3b. u̯er-
vaxu̯okso-
vaxaau̯eg-
veðru̯et-
vefa1. u̯ebh-
ver-ǫld2. al-
vetr9. au̯(e)-
vettr9. au̯(e)-
vexaau̯eg-
vindr10. au̯(e)-
vist2. u̯es-
vittr9. au̯(e)-
víking4. u̯eik-
vīkva4. u̯eik-
víl-stigru̯ā̆i-
vǫxtrau̯eg-
þátā-
þánatā-
þefja2. tap-, tep-
þefjaðtep-
þefrtep-
þekja1. (s)teg-
þengill2. tenk-
þenja1. ten-
þexlatek̑þ-
þeyjatā-
þeyrtā-
þiðnatā-
þiþinntā-
þíðatā-
þíðrtā-
þjóðtēu-
þjōðanntēu-
þola1. tel-
þorn7. (s)ter-n-
þóf2. tap-
þrár3. ter-
þryngva1. trenk-
þrælltrāgh-
þröng1. trenk-
þrøngva1. trenk-
þvál2. tu̯ak-
þváttr2. tu̯ak-
þykkrtegu-
þyrnir7. (s)ter-n-
æaiu̯-
æfiaiu̯-
ældri2. al-
ællri2. al-
ǣtred-
ætred-
æviaiu̯-
ǫgn2. ak̑-
ǫld2. al-
ǫndanət-
ǫngrang̑h-
ǫnnes-en-
ǫrarqu-
ǫrvararqu-
ǫssansu-
øngdang̑h-
øngjaang̑h-
øngrang̑h-
øngvaang̑h-
øxag(e)sī
œgishjālmragh-
œgjaagh-

See also: Old Norse