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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ā̆g̑her-, ā̆g̑hen-, ā̆g̑hes-, or ō̆g̑her etc.   'day, dawn'

Semantic Field: Day


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ān-daga n.wk.masc fixed day GED
  dæg n.str.masc day; (name for) D-rune GED
  daga n.masc day ASD
  dagi(g)an vb to dawn W7/ASD
  dagung vb.ptc/n.fem dawning, daybreak W7/ASD
  dōgor/dōger n.str.neut day GED/ASD
  frīgedæg/frigdæg n.masc Friday, lit. Freya's day W7/ASD
  gebyrd-dæg n.str.masc birthday CDC
  mōnandæg n.masc Monday, lit. Moon day W7
  sæter(n)dæg/sæter(n)esdæg n.masc Saturday, lit. Saturn day W7/ASD
  sunnandæg n.masc Sunday, lit. Sun day W7
  tīwesdæg n.masc Tuesday, lit. Tiw's day W7
  þunresdæg n.masc Thursday, lit. Thor's day W7
  wōdnesdæg n.masc Wednesday, lit. Woden's day W7
Northumbrian: dǣg n.str.neut day GED
Middle English: aday adv at midday MEV
  aldai adv all day MEV
  birthdai/bitheday n birthday CDC
  dawnen vb to dawn W7
  daw(n)ing vb.ptc dawning W7
  day n day W7
  Friday prop.n Friday, lit. Freya's day W7
  Monday prop.n day named for the Moon W7
  Saterday prop.n day named for Saturn: Roman agriculture god W7
  Sunday prop.n day named for the Sun W7
  Thursday prop.n day named for Thor: Germanic thunder god W7
  Tiwesday prop.n day named for Tiw: Germanic war/sky god W7
  Wednesday prop.n day named for Woden: Germanic chief god W7
  Whitsonday prop.n Whitsunday W7
English: birthday n day/anniversary of one's birth W7
  daily adj/adv every day W7
  daisy n familiar wild Eurasian plant/flower AHD/CDC
  dawn n sunlight's first appearance in morning AHD/W7
  dawn vb.intrans (for sunlight) to appear in morning AHD/W7
  day n time of sun's light between nights AHD/W7
  Friday prop.n day between Thursday and Saturday AHD/W7
  midday n noon, middle part of day W7
  Monday prop.n day between Sunday and Tuesday AHD/W7
  Saturday prop.n day between Friday and Sunday AHD/W7
  Sunday prop.n day between Saturday and Monday AHD/W7
  Thursday prop.n day between Wednesday and Friday AHD/W7
  today adv/n (on/for) this day AHD/W7
  Tuesday prop.n day between Monday and Wednesday AHD/W7
  Wednesday prop.n day between Tuesday and Thursday AHD/W7
  Whitsunday prop.n Pentecost, lit. white Sunday AHD/W7
Old Frisian: dei/di/dach n.str.masc day GED/ASD
  mōna(n)dei n Monday ASD
  sāterdei n.masc Saturday W7/ASD
  werusdei n.masc Wednesday ASD
Frisian: dey n.masc day ASD
Middle Dutch: woensdach n.masc Wednesday ASD
Dutch: dag n.masc day ASD
  dāgen vb to dawn ASD
  zon-dag n Sunday ASD
Old Saxon: dag n.str.masc day GED
  ēn-dago n.wk.masc lit. death-day GED
Old Low German: sunnun-dag n Sunday ASD
Middle Low German: sūke-dage n.wk.masc sickness, lit. sick-day GED
Low German: dag n.masc day ASD
Old High German: Dagi-bert prop.n Dagibert GED
  frīatag n.masc Friday, lit. Freya's day W7
  gaburti-tago n.wk.masc lit. birth-day GED
  mahal-tago n.wk.masc fixed day GED
  mānatag/mānotag n.masc Monday W7/ASD
  siech-tage n.wk.masc sickness, lit. sick-day GED
  sunnūntag n.masc Sunday W7
  tac/tag n.str.masc day GED/ASD
  tagēn vb to dawn ASD
  zīostag n.masc Tuesday W7
Middle High German: tac/tag n.masc day ASD
  tagen vb to dawn ASD
  ziestag n.masc Tuesday ASD
German: Dienstag n.masc Tuesday LRC
  Donnerstag n.masc Thursday LRC
  Freitag n.masc Friday LRC
  Geburtstag n.masc birthday LRC
  Montag n.masc Monday ASD
  Samstag n.masc Saturday LRC
  Sonntag n Sunday ASD
  Tag n.masc day ASD
  tagen vb to dawn ASD
  täglich adj/adv daily TLL
Runic: *dagaz n day; (name for) D-rune LRC
Old Norse: Dagr prop.n.masc Day [personal name in Edda] LRC
  ein-daga n fixed day ASD
  ōþins-dagr n.masc Wednesday, lit. Odin's day W7
  þōrs-dagr n.masc Thursday, lit. Thor's day W7
Old Icelandic: dagr n.str.masc day GED
  døgr/døgn n.neut half-day (12 hrs.) GED
  ein-dagi n.wk.masc fixed day GED
  māl-dagi n.wk.masc fixed day GED
Icelandic: daga vb to dawn ASD
  dagr n.masc day ASD
  dægr/dœgr n.neut day ASD
  mānadagr n.masc Monday ASD
  oðinsdagr n.masc Wednesday ASD
  sunnudagr n Sunday ASD
  tȳsdagr n.masc Tuesday ASD
Danish: dag n.masc day ASD
  daget (it) dawns ASD
  mandag n.masc Monday ASD
Swedish: dag n.masc day ASD
  daga vb to dawn ASD
Gothic: *afar-dags n.str.masc the following day GED
  *Dagis-þius prop.n Dagisthius GED
  dags n.str.masc day GED
  fidur-dogs adj on the 4th day GED
Crimean Gothic: tag n day GED
Avestan: azan- n day GED
Sanskrit: áhar, áhan-, áhas- n day GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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