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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: aiu̯-, ai̯u-   'vitality, life force'

Semantic Field: to Live; Living; Life


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ā adv aye GED
  ǣ/ǣw(e) n.str.fem law, marriage GED/ASD
  ǣfre/ǣfer adv ever W7/ASD
  ēce/ǣce adj eternal GED/ASD
   adv never GED
  nǣfre adv never W7
  ō adv aye GED
Middle English: age n age W7
  ay(e)/ai/ei adv aye W7/CDC
  eternal adj eternal W7
  eterne adj eterne W7
  eternite n eternity W7
  ever adv ever W7
  nay adv nay W7
  never adv never W7
  sempiternal adv sempiternal W7
English: (a)eon n age, long period of time AHD/W7
  age n lifetime, stage/period of life AHD/W7
  ay(e) adv yes, indeed; ever, always, forever AHD/W7/CDC
  coetaneous adj coeval AHD/W7
  coeval adj of equal age AHD/W7
  eternal adj undying, everlasting AHD/W7
  eterne adj eternal AHD/W7
  eternity n endlessness of time AHD/W7
  ever adv always, forever AHD/W7
  Evermind prop.n Rohan (grave) flower in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hygiene n personal cleanliness AHD/W7
  longevity n lifespan, (long) time to live AHD/W7
  medieval adj re: the Middle Ages AHD/W7
  nay adv no, lit. not ay(e) AHD/W7
  never adv lit. not ever AHD/W7
  primeval adj earliest, original, most ancient AHD/W7
  sempiternal adj eternal AHD/W7
  utopia n ideal/imaginary place AHD/W7
Old Frisian: ā n law CDC
  ē n.str.masc law GED
  ēwa n.fem law ASD
  ēwe n.wk.fem law GED
  ēwīg/ewch/iowich/iowigh adj eternal GED/ASD
Dutch: eeuwig adj eternal ASD
Old Saxon: ēo/ēu n.str.masc law GED
  ēo/(g)io adv aye CDC
  ēwan adj eternal GED
  ēwīg adj eternal GED
  ēwitha n.str.fem eternity GED
Old High German: ē(h)a n.fem law, custom, marriage ASD
  ēwa n.fem law, marriage, religious decree GED
  ēwī n.fem law, marriage, religious decree GED
  ēwida n.str.fem eternity GED
  ēwīg adj eternal GED
  ēwīn n.str.fem eternity GED
  io/ēo adv aye, always GED/CDC
  neo/nio adv nay, never GED
Middle High German: ē(we) n.fem law, custom, marriage ASD
  ēwic/ēwec adj eternal ASD
  ie/je adv aye CDC
German: Ehe n.fem marriage ASD
  ewig adj eternal LRC
  Hygiene n.fem hygiene LRC
  ja adv aye: yes LRC
  je adv aye: ever CDC
Old Norse: ei adv aye: ever W7
  eigi adv not LRC
  nei adv nay W7
  samr adj same W7
  æ adv aye: ever LRC
Old Icelandic: ei adv aye GED
  lang-ǣr adj long-lived GED
  æ adv aye: ever GED
  æfi n.str.fem age, life GED
  ævi n.str.fem age, life GED
Icelandic: ei/ey n aye CDC
Danish: evig adj eternal ASD
Swedish: evig adj eternal ASD
Gothic: aiw adv aye CDC
  *aiws n.str.masc aeon, lifetime, eternity GED
  *ajukduþs n.fem eternity (as a feature of existence) GED
  halis-aiw adv hardly ever GED
Old Latin: aeuom/aevom n.neut aeon GED/CDC
Latin: aetās, aetātis n.fem age, period W7
  aeternitās, aeternitātis n.fem eternity W7
  aeternus adj eternal GED
  aevum n.neut aeon GED/IEW
  aevus n.masc aeon GED/IEW
  coaevus adj coeval W7
  longaevus adj long-lived GED
  primaevus adj primeval W7
  sempiternus adj eternal W7
  vivus adj living W7
Vulgar Latin: aetaticum adj re: age W7
Late Latin: aeternalis adj eternal W7
  longaevitas n.fem longevity W7
  sempiternalis adj sempiternal W7
Old French: aage n.masc age W7
Middle French: eternal adj eternal W7
  eterne adj eternal W7
  eternité n.fem eternity W7
French: hygiène n.fem cleanliness, healthy living W7
Homeric Greek: οὐ/οὐκ/οὐχ adv no, not W7
Greek: ἀεί adv aye: ever LRC
  αἰεί adv aye: ever LRC
  αἰέν adv always GED
  αἰών n.masc aeon, life(time) GED
  αἰ[Ϝ]ές adv always GED
  δηναι(Ϝ)ός adj long-lived GED
  hygieinos adj healthful W7
  hygiēs adj healthy W7
Vedic: āyunā n.loc life GED
  ā́yuni n.inst life GED
Sanskrit: ā́yu- n life, life force GED
  eva n.masc course, manner ASD
Tocharian A: ăym- n life, spirit GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
inst=instrumental (case)
loc=locative (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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