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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ak̑-, ok̑-   'sharp, acute, angular; stone'

Semantic Fields: Sharp; Rock, Stone


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ēr adj high GED
  ochair n edge GED
Gaulish: Aχrotalus prop.n with high forehead GED
Old English: ægnan chaff GED
  agen n ear of grain W7
  agu n magpie GED
  ēar n.str.neut ear, icker GED
  ecg n.str.fem tip, edge GED
  egenu n.str.fem chaff GED
  egl n.str.masc splinter GED
Middle English: acetous adj acetous AHD
  acuite n acuity AHD
  aglet n aglet W7
  ague n ague W7
  awn(e)/aune/awene/agun n awn W7/CDC
  egge n egg W7
  eggen vb to egg (on), urge/tempt, incite/entice W7
  eglentyn adj eglantine W7
  egre adj eager W7
  selvage n selvage W7
  vinegre n vinegar W7
English: acerate adj pointed like needle AHD/W7
  acerbic adj sour/acid in taste AHD
  acerose adj long and narrow and pointed AHD
  acetabulum n hipbone socket; a leech's sucker AHD/W7
  acetic adj re: vinegar, acetic acid AHD/W7
  acetous adj sour, acetic AHD
  acetum n vinegar, dilute acetic acid solution AHD
  acicula n needlelike spine/bristle/crystal AHD/W7
  acid adj sour, sharp, biting to the taste AHD/W7
  acid n sour substance W7
  acidanthera n (type of) flower AHD
  acidic adj acid, acid-forming W7
  acme n peak, highest point AHD/W7
  acne n skin pore inflammation AHD/W7
  acrid adj sharp/pungent in taste/odor AHD/W7
  acrimony n harsh/biting sharpness (of words) AHD/W7
  acr(o)- pfx topmost, extreme AHD/W7
  acrobat n one who performs gymnastic feats AHD/W7
  acromegaly n chronic hyperpituitarism (enlargement of feet/hands) AHD/W7
  acromelic adj re: extremity ends (hands/feet) AHD
  acromion n high outside part of scapula AHD
  acronym n word formed by first letters of name AHD
  acrophobia n abnormal fear of heights W7
  acropolis n upper fortified part of ancient Greek city AHD/W7
  acrostic n composition where initial/final letters of lines form word/phrase/sequence AHD
  acuity n sharpness, keenness of perception AHD/W7
  aculeate adj having a sting, prickly AHD/W7
  acumen n keenness of perception AHD/W7
  acuminate vb to taper to sharp point AHD
  acupuncture n Chinese medical science of body puncture AHD/W7
  acute adj sharp, severe, penetrating AHD/W7
  aglet n tag of a lace-end AHD/W7
  ague n fever of heat, chills, sweating AHD/W7
  amphioxus n lancelet AHD/W7
  awn n slender bristle at end of grain-stalk AHD/W7
  carvacrol n liquid phenol used as antiseptic AHD/W7
  eager adj.arch keen, sharp AHD/W7
  ear n fruiting spike of a cereal AHD/W7
  edge n edge, cutting side or line AHD/W7
  egg vb to incite to action AHD/W7
  eglantine n sweetbrier AHD/W7
  ester n organic acid/alcohol compound AHD/W7
  exacerbate vb to excite, enflame, intensify AHD/W7
  icker n head of grain W7
  mediocre adj middling, inferior AHD/W7
  oxalis n wood sorrel AHD/W7
  oxygen n oxygen AHD/W7
  oxytone adj acutely accented on last syllable AHD/W7
  paragon n model of excellence/perfection AHD/W7
  paroxysm n convulsion, sudden onset of disease symptoms AHD/W7
  selvage n ravel-resistant fabric edge AHD/W7
  vinegar n vinegar AHD/W7
Old Frisian: eg/ig n.fem edge ASD
Frisian: eher n.str.neut ear GED
  ig n edge ASD
Middle Flemish: egge n edge W7
  selvage/selvegge n ravel-resistant fabric edge W7
Old Saxon: eggia n.str.fem tip, edge GED
Old High German: aga n magpie GED
  agana n.str.fem chaff, ear of grain GED
  ahir n.str.neut ear GED
  ecka/ekka n.str.fem tip, edge GED/ASD
  ehir n.str.neut ear GED
Middle High German: ag(e)ne/ane n awn CDC
  eck n.neut edge ASD
  ecke n.fem edge ASD
German: Ähre n.fem ear LRC
  akut adj acute, urgent LRC
  Äther n ether W7
  Eck n.neut edge ASD
  Ecke n.fem edge, corner ASD
  Essig n vinegar W7
  Essigäther n ethyl acetate W7
  Ester n organic acid/alcohol compound W7
Old Norse: egg n.fem edge LRC
  eggja, eggjað vb to urge, whet LRC
  ögn n ear of grain W7
Old Icelandic: ax n.str.neut ear GED
  egg n.str.fem tip, edge GED
  ǫgn n.str.fem chaff GED
Icelandic: egg n.fem edge ASD
  ögn, agnar n awn, chaff CDC
Danish: avne n awn, chaff CDC
  eg n.masc/fem edge ASD
Swedish: agg n.masc prick, resentment GED
  agga vb.wk to prick, incite GED
  *agn, agnar n awn, chaff CDC
  egg n.masc edge ASD
Gothic: ahaks n tame white dove (sacrificial dove; also symbol of the Holy Spirit) GED
  ahana n.fem awn, chaff GED
  ahs n.neut ear (of grain) GED
Umbrian: ocar n mountain GED
  ukar n mountain GED
Old Latin: mediocris adj mediocre, at mid-height GED
  ocris n rocky mountain GED
Latin: aceo, acēre vb to be sour W7
  acer, aceris n.neut maple (tree) GED
  ācer, ācris, ācre adj sharp, piercing GED
  acerbo, acerbare vb to aggravate, make harsh/bitter AHD/CLD
  acerbus adj harsh, bitter W7
  aceris n.gen chaff GED
  acetum n.neut vinegar W7
  acidus adj sour, acidic W7
  acies, aciei n.fem line of battle LRC
  acrimonia n.fem bitterness, harshness W7
  aculeatus adj having stings W7
  aculeus n.masc sting W7
  acumen, acuminis n.neut point W7
  acuō, acuere, acuī, acūtus vb to sharpen W7
  acus n chaff GED
  acus n.fem needle W7
  agna n.fem ear of grain GED
  exacerbo, exacerbare vb to exacerbate, make worse/more bitter W7
  mediocris adj not good but not bad; halfway up a mountain W7
  ocris n.masc stony mountain W7
  oxalis n.masc wood sorrel W7
Vulgar Latin: aculentum n.neut eglantine W7
Late Latin: acicula, acucula n.fem ornamental pin W7
Medieval Latin: acuta adj.fem sharp (fever) W7
  paroxysmus n.masc paroxysm W7
New Latin: amphioxus adj sharp at both ends W7
  oxalis n.masc wood sorrel W7
Old French: acrostiche n acrostic AHD
  agu adj sharp W7
  agüeté n.fem acuity W7
  aigre adj sour W7
  vinaigre n.masc vinegar W7
Middle French: acrimonie n.fem acrimony W7
  acrostiche n.masc acrostic W7
  acuité n.fem acuity W7
  aguë adj acute (fever) W7
  aguille, aiguille n.fem needle W7
  aguillette, aiguillette n.fem small needle W7
  aiglent n.masc eglantine, sweetbrier W7
  médiocre adj not good but not bad W7
  paragon n.masc example, model W7
French: acétique adj acetic W7
  acide adj sour, acidic W7
  acrobate n.masc acrobat W7
  acromégalie n acromegaly AHD
  acrostiche n.masc acrostic AHD
  aigre adj keen, sour W7
  oxygène n.masc oxygen W7
  oxyton n.masc a word accented on the last syllable W7
  paroxysme n.masc climax, paroxysm W7
Old Italian: paragonare vb to test on a touchstone W7
  paragone n.masc touchstone W7
Old Prussian: ackons n ear of grain GED
Lithuanian: ašnìs n blade GED
  aštrùs adj sharp GED
Latvian: akrims n stone GED
Old Church Slavonic: ostrъ adj sharp GED
Cyprian: ἀκοσ-τή n barley GED
Doric: ἄχνα n awn, chaff CDC
Homeric Greek: ἀκαχμένος adj pointed, sharpened GED
  ἄκμων n stone, anvil LRC
Greek: ἄκαινα n tip GED
  ἄκανθα n.fem thorn LRC
  akē n.fem point W7
  ἀκ-μή n peak GED/IEW
  akmē n.fem point W7
  aknē n.fem eruption on face W7
  ἀκόνη n whetstone GED
  akonē n.fem whetstone W7
  ἄκονος n thistle GED
  akrobatein vb to walk on tip-toe AHD
  akrobatēs n.masc acrobat AHD
  ἄκρον n.neut peak, extremity, mountain-top LRC
  ἄκρος adj sharp GED
  akrostichis n.fem acrostic W7
  akrōmion n acromion, outer end of scapula AHD
  ἄκων n throwing spear GED
  ἄχνη n awn, chaff CDC
  ὄκρις n mountain peak GED
  oxynein vb to provoke W7
  oxys adj sharp W7
  oxytonos adj oxytone W7
  parakonan vb to sharpen W7
  paroxynein vb to stimulate W7
  παροξυσμος n.masc paroxysm, irritation, provocation, exasperation LS
Hittite: aku- n stone GED
  hekur n (tip of) rock GED
Armenian: asełn n needle GED
Avestan: ašnō n rock, stone for sling GED
Sanskrit: aśánis n thunderbolt, tip of missile GED
  aśrá- adj sharp GED
  áśriṣ n sharp edge GED
Tocharian B: āke n end GED
Tocharian A: āk n end GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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