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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. al-, ol-   'beyond; other, alien'

Semantic Fields: Stranger; Like, Similar


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: aile adj other GED
  ailither n pilgrim GED
  indoll prep beyond W7
Old English: eal(l) adj/adv all; entirely LRC
  eall-swā adv also, lit. all so W7
  (e)al-swā adv/conj also, lit. all so CDC
  elcor/elcur/ælcor adv otherwise GED/ASD
  elelende vb.past.ptc exiled GED
  elles adv otherwise GED
  ellicor adv otherwise GED
  ellor adv elsewhere GED
Middle English: adultery n adultery W7
  al/all(e) adj/adv all W7/MEV
  albeit adv albeit W7
  aldai adv all day MEV
  algate adv in all ways, at any rate MEV
  alien adj/n alien W7
  alkyn adj of all kinds MEV
  all adv withal W7
  alone adj/adv lone W7
  alsaume adv all together MEV
  also/als(wa) adv/conj also, lit. all so W7/MEV
  alteren vb to alter W7
  although adv although W7
  as conj whereas W7
  as(e)/als(e) adv/conj as CDC
  avoutrie n adultery W7
  uttraunce n utterance; bitter end W7
English: adulterate vb to make impure AHD/W7
  adulterine adj illegal, spurious, re: adulteration AHD/W7
  adultery n sex between unmarried spouses AHD/W7
  albeit conj even though AHD/W7
  alfresco adj/adv outdoor(s), in open air AHD/W9
  alias adv assumed name/identity AHD/W7
  alibi n excuse of having been elsewhere AHD/W7
  alien adj strange, foreign AHD/W7
  alien n stranger, foreigner LRC
  aliquot adj re: exact factor/divisor of quantity AHD
  all adj every, complete AHD/W7
  allele n one of a genetic pair LRC
  allelomorph n allele, lit. other form AHD/W7
  allelopathy n plant toxin release slowing other plant growth AHD
  alligator n crocodilian with short broad untapered snout AHD/W7
  allo- pfx other AHD/W7
  also adv too, likewise, as well, in addition AHD/W7
  alter vb to change AHD/W7
  altercate vb.intrans to dispute, wrangle AHD/W7
  alternate adj re: occurring/succeeding by turns AHD/W7
  although conj even though, while AHD/W7
  altruism n concern for others' interests AHD/W7
  as adv/conj so, like; when, while AHD/W7
  else adv otherwise GED
  hoopla n hubbub, commotion AHD/W7
  lagniappe n bonus gift from merchant AHD/W7
  lariat n rope with noose for catching cattle AHD/W7
  morphallaxis n organic regrowth from remnant AHD/W7
  outré adj bizarre, violating convention/propriety AHD/W7
  parallax n skewing of form/position due to perspective AHD/W7
  parallel adj lying on same plane without intersection AHD/W7
  penult n next to last item (in series) TLL
  subaltern adj subordinate AHD/W7
  trophallaxis n mutual exchange of food among social insects AHD
  ulterior adj further AHD/W7
  ultimate adj last, final, furthest, greatest AHD/W7
  ultra- pfx beyond, intense AHD/W7
  utterance n what is said/uttered AHD/W7
  voila interj there it is! AHD
Old Frisian: al/ol adj all ASD
  as(e)/a(l)sa adv/conj as CDC
  ekker/elker/elkes adv otherwise ASD
  elles/ellis adv otherwise ASD
Frisian: al/ol adj all ASD
Dutch: al(le)/alles adj all ASD
Old Saxon: al adj all ASD
  alsō adv/conj as, also CDC
  elcor adv otherwise GED
  elilende vb.past.ptc exiled GED
  ellicor adv elsewhere GED
Old High German: alilante vb.past.ptc exiled GED
  al(l) adj/adv all ASD
  alles adv otherwise GED
  alsō adv/conj as, also CDC
  elih(h)or/elic(h)or adv further GED/ASD
  elilenti vb.past.ptc exiled GED
  ellichōr adv further GED
  ell(i)es adv otherwise GED/ASD
Middle High German: al adj all ASD
  alles adv otherwise ASD
  alsō/alse adv/conj as, also CDC
German: All n.neut universe LRC
  all(e), aller, alles adj all ASD
  Allel n.neut allele AHD
  Allelomorph n allelomorph AHD
  als conj as, than GED
  also adv so, thus LRC
Old Norse: elligar adv otherwise LRC
Old Icelandic: ella(r) adv otherwise GED
  elligar adv otherwise GED
  ellor adv otherwise GED
Icelandic: allr/allt/ale/öll adj all ASD
  ellegar/elligar/ella(r) adv otherwise ASD
Danish: al adj all ASD
  als adv/conj as, also CDC
  eller conj or, nor TLL
  ellers adv otherwise ASD
Swedish: al adj all ASD
  eljest adv else ASD
  eller conj or, nor TLL
Gothic: alja conj but GED
  aljaleiko adv otherwise GED
  *aljaleikoþs adj/vb.ptc allegorical, with a different meaning GED
  aljar adv elsewhere GED
  aljaþ adv elsewhere, to another place GED
  aljaþro adv by another way GED
  *aljis adj other GED
  allis adv at all ASD
  alls adj all LRC
Oscan: alttram adj other GED
Old Latin: ollus dem.pron he, that LRC
Latin: adulter adj unchaste, adulterous W7
  adulterium n.neut adultery W7
  adulterō, adulterāre vb to commit adultery W7
  alias adv of another time W7
  alibi adv elsewhere GED
  alienus, aliena, alienum adj alien, unfitting LRC
  aliquis, aliquis, aliquid pron.indef anyone LRC
  aliter adv otherwise GED
  alius adj/pron other GED
  alter, altera, alterum adj/pron other GED
  altercor, altercārī vb.dep to dispute, wrangle W7
  alterno, alternāre vb to alternate W7
  alternus adj other W7
  ille, illa, illud dem.pron he, she, that LRC
  olim adv some day LRC
  parallelus adj parallel W7
  ullus adj/pron any(one) W7
  uls adv beyond W7
  ulter adj situated beyond W7
  ulterior, ulterioris adj farther, remote LRC
  ultimus adj.sup last W7
  ultrā adv/prep/pfx beyond W7
Late Latin: subalternus adj subaltern W7
  ultimo, ultimāre vb to be last, come to an end W7
Medieval Latin: alterō, alterāre vb to alter, change W7
  ultimatus adj last, final W7
New Latin: morphallaxis n.fem change of form W7
Spanish: allá adv over there, far away TLL
  el, la art.def the W7
Old French: adultere n adultery AHD
  alien n.masc alien W7
  alterer vb to alter AHD
  autre indef.adj/pron other W7
  autrui adj.obl other W7
  outre prep beyond W7
  outré adj passed, defeated W7
  outrer vb to pass (someone) W7
Middle French: altérer vb to change, damage W7
  avoutrie n.fem adultery W7
  outrance n.fem what is outrageous W7
  parallaxe n.fem parallax W7
French: altruisme n.masc altruism W7
  aussi conj as TLL
  autre indef.adj/pron other LRC
  autrui others, other people W7
  houp-là interj hoopla W7
  le, la art.def the LRC
  outré adj outraged, offended W7
  outrer vb to irritate, carry to excess W7
  voilà cont voila, there is/are, lit. see there AHD
Italian: altrui indef.pron someone else AHD
Greek: ἀλλά conj but GED
  allaxis n.fem exchange W7
  allassein vb to change, exchange W7
  ἀλλήλων pron one another LRC
  ἄλλοθι adv elsewhere GED
  ἄλλος adj other GED
  ἀλλότριος n stranger GED
  ἄλλως adv otherwise, especially LRC
  parallaxis n.fem act of changing W7
  parallassein vb to change W7
  parallēlos adj parallel W7
Classical Armenian: ayl conj but LRC
Armenian: ail conj but (rather) GED
  ayl adj other GED
Avestan: anyadā adv elsewhere GED
Sanskrit: anyátra adv elsewhere GED
  anyás adj other GED
  aríḥ n stranger GED
  aryás n hospitable lord GED
Tocharian B: alyek adj other GED
Tocharian A: alyak adj other GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
obl=oblique (case)
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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