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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. al-   'to grow, nourish, enhance'

Semantic Field: to Grow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: al n bank GED
  alim vb to nourish, bring up GED
  alt n height, bank GED
  altae adj adult GED
  altram n nourishment GED
  altru n foster-father GED
Welsh: athraw n teacher GED
Old English: alan vb.str to nourish GED
  aldor n.masc chief, prince, lit. elder ASD
  (e)ald adj old GED
  eal(d)dōm n.str.masc/neut old age GED
  ealdor n.str.masc elder, parent, prince; life LRC
  ealdor-mon(n) n.masc nobleman, lit. elder man ASD
  ield(o) n.str.fem age GED
  ieldra adj.comp elder, older GED
  or-eald adj very-old, lit. from (of) old ASD
  wer-old n.str.fem era, world GED
  ylde n.str.fem age GED
Middle English: abolisshen vb to abolish W7
  adolescent adj adolescent AHD
  alde/old(e) adj old MEV
  alderman n English administrator W7
  aliment n aliment W7
  altitude n altitude W7
  elder n elder W7
  enhauncen vb to enhance W7
  exalten vb to exalt W7
  haute adj haughty W7
  hawser n hawser, large rope for ships W7
English: abolish vb.trans to annul, cancel, do away with AHD/W7
  adolescent n young teenager (typically 11-15 years) AHD/W7
  adult adj grown person AHD/W7
  alderman n English administrator AHD/W7
  Aldor prop.n 3rd Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  alible adj nourishing, having nutrients AHD
  aliment n food, nutriment AHD/W7
  alimony n monetary allowance AHD/W7
  alt adj/n (re:) 1st octave above treble staff AHD
  alth(a)ea n hollycock, marsh mallow AHD/OED
  altimeter n height measurement tool AHD/W7
  altiplano n high plain or plateau AHD/W7
  altitude n height above ground AHD/W7
  alto n second highest voice/musical range AHD/W7
  altocumulus n a cirrus-like dark cloud AHD/W7
  altostratus n a fleecy, shaded, globular cloud AHD/W7
  altricial adj bearing helpless young AHD/W7
  alumnus n graduate of a school or college AHD/W7
  coalesce vb.intrans to merge, fuse AHD/W7
  elder adj/n older (person) AHD/W7
  eldest adj/n oldest (person) AHD/W7
  enhance vb.trans to augment, intensify AHD/W7
  exalt vb to raise on high with honor AHD/W7
  haughty adj disdainfully proud AHD/W7
  hautboy/hautbois n oboe AHD
  hawser n rope for ship towing AHD/W7
  old adj aged, ancient AHD/W7
  Oldbuck prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Orald prop.n a.k.a. Tom Bombadil in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  proletarian n belonging to the lower class AHD/W7
  proliferate vb to grow/multiply rapidly AHD
  proliferous adj reproducing freely via buds/branches AHD
  prolific adj fertile, abundant AHD/W7
Scots English: auld adj old W7
Old Frisian: ald adj old GED
  warld/wrald n.fem world ASD
Frisian: aod/aud/oad adj old ASD
Dutch: onder-dom n lifetime ASD
  oud adj old ASD
  ouder n elder, parent TLL
Old Saxon: ald adj old GED
  aldar n.str.neut age GED
  eldī n.str.fem age GED
  wer-old n.str.fem world, men; era, lifetime GED
Old High German: alt adj old GED
  altar n.str.neut age GED
  alt-duam n.str.masc/neut old age GED
  altī n.str.fem age GED
  altiro adj.comp older GED
  alt-tuom n.str.masc/neut old age GED
  eltī n.str.fem age GED
  ur-alt adj very old ASD
  wer-alt n.str.fem world; era GED
Middle High German: alt adj old ASD
  alter n.neut age ASD
German: alt adj old ASD
  Alter n.neut age LRC
  Elter n.masc elder, parent LRC
Old Norse: ala vb.str to bear, beget, give birth to; feed LRC
  elska, elskað vb to love LRC
  ǫld n.fem age; mankind; world LRC
Old Icelandic: ala vb.str to beget GED
  aldinn adj aged GED
  aldr n.masc age, time of life GED
  elli n.fem age GED
  ellri adj.comp older GED
  ver-ǫld n.str.fem world; era GED
  ældri adj.comp older GED
  ællri adj.comp older GED
  ǫld n.fem age GED
Icelandic: aldr n.masc age, life, period ASD
  ver-öld n.fem world ASD
Norwegian: elja vb to fatten GED
Danish: alder n.masc/fem age ASD
  forælder n parent TLL
Swedish: förälder n parent TLL
  ålder n.masc age ASD
Gothic: *alan vb.str.VI to grow GED
  *aldomo n.masc/neut old age GED
  *alds n.fem age, generation GED
  *aljan vb.wk.I.caus to fatten GED
  alþeis adj old GED
  alþiza adj.comp older GED
  *fram-aldrs adj aged GED
  *us-alþans silly GED
Crimean Gothic: alt adj old GED
Latin: aboleo, abolēre vb to destroy, abolish W7
  abolēsco, abolēscere vb to decay, disappear gradually W7
  adolescens, adolescentis adj adolescent W7
  adolēscō, adolēscere vb to grow up GED
  adultus adj adult, mature, grown up GED
  alēsco, alēscere vb to grow, flourish GED
  alibilis adj alible AHD
  alimentum n.neut aliment W7
  alimonia n.fem sustenance, nourishment W7
  alō, alere, altus vb to nourish GED
  althea n althaea AHD
  altitudo n.fem height, depth W7
  altor n.masc one who nourishes W7
  altrix, altricis n.fem one who nourishes W7
  altus, alta, altum adj high, deep LRC
  alumnus/alumna n.masc/fem nursling, foster-child W7
  coalesco, coalescere vb to unite W7
  exalto, exaltare vb to exalt W7
  prōlēs n.fem offspring, progeny, descendants GED
  proletarius adj re: common people W7
Vulgar Latin: altio, altiare vb to pull high W7
  inaltio, inaltiare vb to enhance, make higher/bigger W7
New Latin: altocumulus n.masc altocumulus: type of cloud W7
  altostratus n.masc altostratus: type of cloud W7
American Spanish: altiplano n.masc plateau W7
Old French: abolir vb to destroy, abolish AHD
  adolescent adj adolescent AHD
  enhaucier vb to enhance W7
  hautbois n hautbois AHD
Anglo-French: enhauncer vb to enhance W7
  hauceour vb to hoist W7
Middle French: abolir, abolisse vb to destroy, abolish W7
  exalter vb to exalt W7
  haucier vb to hoist W7
  haut adj high W7
French: adolescent n.masc youth, adolescent W7
  hautbois n hautboy AHD
  prolifique adj prolific W7
Italian: alto adj high, deep W7
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: ἀλτρός n payment GED
Greek: ἀλθαίνω vb to heal GED
  ἄν-αλτος adj insatiable GED
  νεᾱλής adj fresh, strong GED
Sanskrit: an-alas n fire, god of fire GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
VI=class 6
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
str=strong (inflection)
ua=used as
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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