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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ank-, ang-   'to flex, bend, angle'

Semantic Field: to Bend

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: anclēow n.masc ankle W7/ASD
  ancor/āncer n anchorite, hermit W7/ASD
  anga n hook W7
  angel n.masc fishhook W7
  Angel-cynn prop.n.neut English, lit. Angle kin LRC
  Engle n the Angles (coastal Germanic group) W7
Middle English: ancre n anchor W7
  angel n fishhook W7
  angelen vb to angle: fish W7
  angle n angle W7
  ankel n ankle W7
English: anchor n anchor (fluked boat stabilizer) AHD/W7
  ancon n architectural bracket or elbow support AHD/W7
  Angle prop.n member of Germanic tribe in Anglia LRC
  angle n corner, sharp bend AHD/W7
  angle vb to turn/flex/position at an angle AHD/W7
  angle vb to fish with hook W7
  ankle n joint between foot and leg AHD/W7
  ankylosis n joint stiffness; bone fusion AHD/W7
  onchocerciasis n river blindness (caused by filarial worms) AHD
  oncidium n kind of orchid AHD/W7
  unciform adj hook-shaped AHD/W7
  uncinaria n hook-mouthed nematode AHD/W7
  uncinate adj hooked, unciform, bent at end AHD
  uncus n hooked anatomical part AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Dutch: anker n anchor TLL
Old Saxon: ēnkoro n.masc hermit, anchorite ASD
Old High German: anchlāo/anchal(a) n ankle W7/ASD
  ango n hook W7
  angul n.masc hook, fishhook ASD
  einchoranar n.masc hermit, anchorite ASD
Middle High German: angel n.masc hook, fishhook ASD
  enkel n.masc ankle ASD
German: Angel n.fem hinge, angle; fishing rod LRC
  angeln vb to fish, angle LRC
  Anker n.masc anchor LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: eng n meadow LRC
  ökul/ökli n.masc ankle ASD
  öngull n.masc hook, fishhook ASD
Danish: anker n anchor TLL
  eng n meadow TLL
Swedish: ankare n anchor TLL
  ankel n ankle ASD
  äng n meadow TLL
Italic  
Latin: anchora n.fem anchor W7
  Ancon n.fem town in Italy W7
  ancōn n ancon AHD
  Angli n.masc.pl Angles: people of Germanic origin W7
  angulus n.masc angle W7
  uncinus adj hook W7
  uncus n.masc hook W7
New Latin: ankylosis n.fem ankylosis W7
  oncidium n.neut genus of orchids W7
  unciformis, unciforme adj shaped like a hook W7
  uncinaria n.fem hookworm W7
  uncus n.masc a hooked anatomical part or process W7
Old French: angle n angle AHD
Middle French: angle n.masc angle W7
Hellenic  
Greek: ankos n.masc glen W7
  ankylos adj crooked W7
  ankyloun vb to make crooked W7
  ankylōsis n.fem ankylosis W7
  ankyra n.fem anchor W7
  ankōn n.masc elbow W7
  onkos n.masc barbed hook, mass W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
prop=proper
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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