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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ansu-, ṇsu-   'ghost, spirit, demon'

Semantic Field: Demon, Evil Spirit


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ōs n.str.masc god; (name for) O-rune IEW/GED
English: Aesir prop.n tribe of gods (Norse mythology) LRC
  Asgard prop.n realm of Aesir (Norse mythology) LRC
Old Saxon: ōs n.str.masc (name for) O-rune GED
German: Asen gods, Aesir LRC
Runic: a(n)su-gisalas n god's hostage GED/IEW
  a(n)suR n god IEW
  *ansuz n god; (name for) A-rune LRC
Old Norse: āsgarðr n Asgard W7
  áss n.masc god LRC
Old Icelandic: āss n.str.masc god GED
  ǫss n.str.masc (name for) O-rune GED
Gothic: anses demigods, half-gods GED
  aza n (name for) A-rune GED
Avestan: ahura- n lord, ruler IEW
  aŋhu- n world; (breath of) life IEW
Sanskrit: ásu- n world; (breath of) life IEW
  ásu-ra- n lord, ruler IEW


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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