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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ap-, more accurately əp- : ēp-   'to take, reach, grasp'

Semantic Fields: to Take; to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: apt adj apt W7
  aptitude n aptitude, tendency AHD
  artillerie/artylerye n artillery W7/CDC
  couple n couple W7
English: adept n able, skilled AHD/W7
  apex n top, vertex, highest point AHD
  apt adj fit, proper AHD/W7
  aptitude n aptness, ability, learning capacity W7
  artillery n missile arms AHD/W7
  attitude n view, disposition AHD/W7
  cabaletta n short aria with simple style/repetitive rhythm AHD
  copula n (subject-predicate) link/connector AHD/W7
  copulate vb to have sexual intercourse AHD/W7
  couple n pair, brace AHD/W7
  couple vb to join, unite, connect, copulate W7
  couplet n unit of 2 successive verse lines W7
  inept adj clumsy, hapless, not apt AHD/W7
  lariat n rope with noose for catching cattle AHD/W7
German: Artillerie n.fem artillery LRC
Latin: adeptus vb.ptc has been attained W7
  adipīscor, adipīscī vb to attain W7
  apere vb to fasten AHD
  apex, apicis n.masc apex, summit, extreme end AHD/ELD
  apiscor, apiscī, aptus vb to reach, attain W7
  apto, aptare vb to fit, adapt, adjust, accommodate CDC
  aptus vb.ptc apt W7
  apud prep near, with, among LRC
  cōpula n.fem tie, bond, copula W7/ELD
  cōpulō, cōpulāre, cōpulāvī, cōpulātus vb to couple, copulate W7/ELD
  ineptus adj inept, silly, improper, unsuitable CDC
Vulgar Latin: *apticulāre vb to equip AHD
Late Latin: aptitudo, aptitudinis n.fem aptitude W7
Middle Latin: aptitudo n aptitude CDC
  artillaria/artilleria n artillery CDC
New Latin: adeptus n.masc alchemist who knows how to change base metals into gold W7
Portuguese: apto adj apt CDC
  artilharia n artillery CDC
  inepto adj inept CDC
Spanish: apto adj apt CDC
  artillería n artillery CDC
  inepto adj inept CDC
Old French: apte adj apt CDC
  artillerie/arteillerie n artillery CDC
  artillier vb to equip AHD
  cople n.masc couple W7
Middle French: couplet n.dim couplet W7
French: attitude n.fem attitude W7
  avec prep with TLL
  inepte adj inept W7
Old Provençal: cobla n copula AHD
Old Occitan: artilheria n artillery CDC
Provençal: apte adj apt CDC
Italian: artiglieria n artillery CDC
  attitudine n.fem aptitude LRC
  attitudine n.fem attitude W7/CID
  atto adj apt CDC
  cabaletta n.dim cabaletta AHD
  cob(o)la n copula AHD
  coboletta n.dim stanza, couplet AHD
  inetto adj inept CDC
Greek: ἅπτω vb to bind, fasten, attach CDC
Classical Armenian: əndunim vb to receive LRC
Sanskrit: āpta adj apt W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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