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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: apo-, pō̆, ap-u, pu   'off, out of, away from'

Semantic Field: to Depart, Go Away


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: a- pfx of, off W7
  æf prep from, from...away GED
  aeftan adv behind, from behind W7
  æfter/efter adv/pfx/prep then, after, behind GED
  æfter-geōla n.masc January, lit. after-yule (month) LRC
  af/of prep of, off, from ASD
  afera/afara n.wk.masc son, heir, descendant ASD
  be-æftan prep/adv after, behind; hereafter AHD/ASD
  eafora/eaf(e)ra/eofera n.wk.masc son, heir, descendant GED/ASD
  ebba n ebb W7
  eft adv thereupon, afterwards LRC
  efterlið n July, lit. after-Lithe (month) ASD
  prafost n.masc provost, officer W7/ASD
Middle English: ab- pfx off, from W7
  afte adv aft, back W7
  apo- pfx away from W7
  apposicioun n apposition AHD
  awke adj turned the wrong way W7
  awkeward adv in the wrong direction W7
  baft adv/prep aft, behind, toward rear AHD/W7
  composicioun n composition W7
  compounen vb to compound W7
  disposen vb to dispose W7
  ebbe n ebb W7
  eft adv after W7
  eftsones adv eftsoons W7
  exposen vb to expose W7
  expounden vb to expound W7
  of adv/pfx/prep of, off W7
  offal n offal, by-product W7
  positive adj positive W7
  preposicioun n preposition W7
  proposen vb to propose W7
  provost n provost W7
  supposen vb to suppose W7
  transposen vb to transpose W7
English: ab- pfx off, from AHD/W7
  abaft adv/prep aft, behind, toward rear/stern AHD/W7
  ablaut n systematic vowel variation in same/related root/affix AHD/W7
  abrupt adj broken off AHD/W7
  aft adv back, astern, toward rear AHD/W7
  aft n stern of ship LRC
  after adv following AHD/W7
  Afterlithe prop.n Shire calendar's July in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  aftermath n rowen, unplowed stubble field, 2nd-growth crop AHD/W7
  Afteryule prop.n Shire calendar's January in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  apo- pfx away from AHD/W7
  apophyge n scape, outward curve of column where shaft joins base/capital AHD
  apotropaic adj averting evil AHD
  apposite adj apt, pertinent, appropriate AHD/W7
  apposition n placing opposite/adjacent/side-by-side AHD
  apropos adj relevant, opportune, appropriate AHD
  awkward adj unnatural, uncomfortable AHD/W7
  component n piece, member AHD/W7
  composite adj made of parts AHD/W7
  composition n tract, work, opus AHD/W7
  compost n organic fertilizer AHD/W7
  compote n fruit dessert bowel AHD/W7
  compound adj made of parts AHD/W7
  compound vb to augment, put together AHD/W7
  contrapposto n twisting of body in artwork AHD
  depone vb to testify AHD/W7
  deposit vb to place, store AHD/W7
  dispose vb to get rid of AHD/W7
  ebb n tide's seaward flow AHD/W7
  eftsoons adv soon after AHD/W7
  exponent n expounder, interpreter AHD/W7
  expose vb to bring to light AHD/W7
  exposé n public exposure of vice AHD/W7
  expound vb to elaborate, set forth AHD/W7
  impose vb to establish by authority AHD/W7
  impost n tax AHD/W7
  interpose vb to intervene, put/come between AHD/W7
  juxtaposition n act/instance of placing objects side-by-side AHD/W7
  of prep from, regarding, belonging to AHD/W7
  off adv from, away AHD/W7
  offal n waste, animal viscera AHD/W7
  oppose vb.trans to defy, stand against AHD/W7
  pastiche n artistic/literary hodgepodge AHD/W7
  position n place, standing AHD/W7
  positive adj real, affirmative AHD/W7
  post- pfx after AHD/W7
  post n watch, station AHD/W7
  posterior adj rear AHD/W7
  postmeridian adj occurring after noon AHD/W7
  postmortem adj occurring after death AHD
  postpartum adj re: period shortly after childbirth AHD
  postprandial adj after meal/dinner AHD
  postscript n note(s) appended to completed letter/article/book AHD/W7
  posture n bearing AHD/W7
  preposition n head of prepositional phrase AHD/W7
  preposterous adj absurd, unheard-of AHD/W7
  propose vb to suggest AHD/W7
  provost n academic administrative official AHD/W7
  punt vb to play against the bank AHD/W7
  reposit vb.trans to store, replace AHD/W7
  suppose vb to imagine; to ween AHD/W7
  transpose vb.trans to shift, exchange AHD/W7
Old Frisian: ebba n.neut ebb ASD
  eft(a) adv then, behind, afterwards ASD
  efter prep after, behind GED
  of prep from, from...away GED
Middle Dutch: ebbe n ebb W7
Dutch: achter prep after TLL
  eb n.fem ebb ASD
  van prep from TLL
Old Saxon: aƀaro n.wk.masc descendant GED
  af prep from, from...away GED
  aftar prep after, behind GED
  eft adv again ASD
Old High German: ab prep from, from...away GED
  aba adv/pfx/prep off, from, from...away GED
  abuh adv turned the wrong way W7
  abur adv again, a second time, on the other hand GED
  aftar adv/prep after, behind GED
  avar adv again, a second time, on the other hand GED
  ebba n.fem ebb ASD
  prōbist n provost, officer ASD
Middle High German: ebbe n.fem ebb ASD
German: ab adv off, from, away LRC
  aber conj but TLL
  Ablaut n.masc ablaut W7
  Ebbe n.fem ebb ASD
  von prep from TLL
Old Norse: af prep out of, from; with; concerning; because of LRC
  aptr adv back; aft LRC
  eptir prep after, behind; for, to obtain; along; according to; in succession to LRC
  ǫfugr adj turned the wrong way, backwards LRC
Old Icelandic: af prep from, from...away GED
  afar- adv very GED
  afr n.str.masc thin beer made from oats GED
  aptr prep back, again GED
  aur- pfx very GED/IEW
  aur-falr n.str.masc lower socket of spear shaft GED
  avar- adv very GED
Icelandic: af prep of, off, from ASD
  prófastr n provost, officer ASD
Danish: af prep of TLL
  agter n aft TLL
  ebbe n.masc/fem ebb ASD
  efter prep after TLL
Swedish: akter n aft TLL
  av prep of TLL
  ebb n.masc ebb ASD
  efter prep after TLL
Gothic: af prep from, from...away, since; of GED
  afar prep after, according to GED
  *afara n.masc descendant GED
  afta adv back, behind ASD
  aftra prep back, again GED
  ufaro prep above GED
Umbrian: ab prep from GED
  ap- prep from GED
Old Latin: po- pfx away W7
  posinō, posinere vb to put, lay down W7
Latin: ab, abs-, ā- adv/prep/pfx from, away from, after LRC
  abrumpo, abrumpere vb to break off W7
  abruptus vb.ptc steep, abrupt W7
  adpositus adj apposite, suitable, placed near CDC
  aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertum vb to open LRC
  aperte adv openly LRC
  appono, apponere, appositus vb to place near W7
  Aprilis n April GED
  compōno, componere, composui, compositum vb to place, arrange W7
  compositio, compositiōnis n.fem composition, arrangement W7
  compostus, composta, compostum vb.ptc settled, placed W7
  depono, deponere, depositus vb to depose, stop W7
  dispono, disponere, disposui vb to arrange W7
  expono, exponere, exposui vb to set forth, explain W7
  impono, imponere, imposui, impositus vb to put, set up W7
  interpono, interponere, imposui vb to place in between W7
  oppono, opponere, opposui vb to oppose W7
  pōnō, pōnere, pōsuī, pōsitus vb to put, place, lay down W7
  positio, positionis n.fem position W7
  positivus adj positive W7
  positura n.fem posture W7
  positus vb.perf.ptc situated GED
  post adv/pfx/prep after, behind W7
  posterior adj.comp coming after W7
  posterus adj coming after W7
  praepono, praeponere, praepositus vb to place at the head W7
  praepositio, praepositionis n.fem preposition W7
  praeposterus adj with the hindside in front W7
  propono, proponere, proposui vb to propose, put forth W7
  punctum n.neut point, vote, small overture W7
  repono, reponere, repositus vb to replace W7
  transpono, transponere, transposui vb to put somewhere else W7
Medieval Latin: compostum n.neut a putting together W7
  deponere vb to depone W7
  praepositus vb.ptc posted in advance W7
  propositus adj/vb.ptc open, exposed, accessible W7
  suppono, supponere, supposui vb to suppose W7
Portuguese: depois adv after TLL
Spanish: después adv after TLL
  punto n.masc point W7
Old French: ab- pfx away from W7
  composte n.fem compote W7
  provost n.masc provost W7
Middle French: apo- pfx away from W7
  compondre vb to compound W7
  composition n.fem composition W7
  compost n.masc compost W7
  disposer vb to arrange W7
  expondre vb to expound W7
  exposer vb to explain, set forth W7
  imposer vb to impose W7
  impost n.masc guardian W7
  interposer vb to interpose, place between W7
  positif adj positive W7
  position n.fem position W7
  poste n.fem relay station, courier W7
  poste n.masc post W7
  proposer vb to propose W7
  supposer vb to suppose W7
  transposer vb to transpose W7
French: compote n.fem compote, stewed fruit W7
  depuis adv since TLL
  exposé n.masc explanation W7
  exposer vb to expose, explain W7
  imposte n.masc guardian W7
  opposer vb to oppose W7
  pastiche n.masc pastiche, imitation W7
  pondre vb to lay an egg W7
  ponte n.fem action of laying an egg W7
  ponte n.masc point (in games); play against bank W7
  ponter vb to mark a point (in games) W7
  posture n.fem posture, position W7
  propos n.masc purpose, intention AHD
Old Italian: porre vb to place W7
  posta n.masc relay station W7
  posto n.masc courier W7
  posto n.masc place at which a soldier is stationed W7
Italian: da prep from, since TLL
  dacchē conj since TLL
  dopo adv after TLL
  pasticcio n.masc pie, pasty, cake W7
  postura n.fem place, site, situation W7
Old Prussian: pa- vb.pfx (away) GED
  po- vb.pfx (away) GED
Lithuanian: apa-čià n lower part GED
  pa- vb.pfx (away) GED
  põ- vb.pfx (away) GED
   prep after, over, on LRC
Latvian: pamazām adv gradually, little by little LRC
Old Church Slavonic: po- vb.pfx (away) GED
  podъ prep under, underneath LRC
Albanian: pa prep without IEW
  prápë adv again GED
Gheg: pāfrujt adj barren, without fruit LRC
Greek: ἀπαγγέλλω vb to report LRC
  ἀπαί adv/prep from, away GED
  ἀπο- pfx from, away GED
  ἀπό adv/prep from, away GED
  ἀπο-τέρω adv further removed GED
  ἀποτρόπαιος adj apotropaic LS
  apopheugein vb to flee AHD
  ἀποφῠγή n.fem apophyge; escape, place of refuge AHD/LS
  ἀπωτέρω adv.comp farther GED/IEW
  ἄφ adv anew GED
Hittite: appasiwatt- n day(s) after GED
Old Persian: apa prep from, away GED
  apara adj other, behind, following GED
  apa-taram adv.comp farther GED/IEW
Avestan: apa prep from, away GED
  aparam adj other, behind, following GED
  aparō adj other, behind, following GED
  pa-zdayeiti vb to frighten away GED
Sanskrit: ápa adv away GED
  apataram adv.comp farther GED/IEW
  ápara- adj later GED
  aparám adv later GED
  ápākas adv from a distant place GED
  paśca prep after, behind W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
perf=perfect (aspect)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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