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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ar(e)-g̑-, arg̑-?, r̥g̑i-   'white, argent, glittering'

Semantic Field: White

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: airget n silver, coin GED
  argat n silver, coin GED
Irish: airgiod n silver, money CDC
  arg adj white, argent CDC
Welsh: ariant n silver GED
English  
Old English: eorc(n)an-stān/eorcen-stān n.str.masc jewel, precious stone, lit. silver-stone ASD
Middle English: agrimony n agrimony W7
  argent n/adj argent W7
  argentine adj argentine AHD
  argil n argil W7
  argu(w)en vb to argue W7/CDC
  litharge n litharge W7
English: agrimony n yellow-flowered herb in rose family AHD/W7
  argent adj/n silver-white AHD/W7
  argentine adj silvery, re: silver AHD
  argentite n silver ore AHD
  argil n potter's clay AHD/W7
  arginine n crystalline basic amino acid AHD/W7
  Argive prop.adj/n re: Argos; Argos inhabitant CDC
  Argo prop.n Jason's ship Swift (Greek mythology) LRC
  Argonaut prop.n Argo crewmember seeking Golden Fleece (Greek mythology) AHD
  Argos prop.n historic capital of Argolis CDC
  argue vb to declare, dispute AHD/W7
  Arkenstone prop.n Thorin's precious stone in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
  litharge n fused lead monoxide AHD/W7
  pyrargyrite n type of silver ore AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old High German: erchan adj right, genuine GED
German: arginin n arginine (amino acid) W7
  pyrargyrit n type of silver ore W7
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: iarkna-steinn n.masc precious stone ASD
Old Icelandic: jarkna-steinn n.str.masc jewel, lit. silver-stone GED
  jar-tegn n omen GED
E-Germanic  
Gothic: airknis adj good, holy ASD
  airkniþa n.fem genuineness GED
Italic  
Oscan: aragetom adj/n white; silver CDC
Latin: argemōnia/agrimōnia n agrimony AHD
  argenteus adj argent ELD
  argentīnus adj argentine AHD
  argentum n.neut silver, money GED
  argilla n.fem argil, white clay W7
  Argivus adj re: Argos CDC
  Argivus n Argive CDC
  Argō prop.n Argo AHD
  Argonauta prop.n Argonaut AHD
  arguo, arguere vb to argue, disclose, make clear W7
  argūtor, argūtari vb.dep to chatter W7
  argutus adj clear, noisy W7
Old French: aigremoine n agrimony AHD
  argent n argent AHD
  argentin adj argentine AHD
  arguer vb to argue CDC
Middle French: aigremoine n.fem agrimony W7
  argent n.masc silver, money W7
  arguer vb to argue, accuse, reason W7
  litharge n.masc lead monoxyde W7
French: argent adj/n argent, silver, money  
  argile n argil CDC
  arguer vb to argue CDC
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: ἀργι-κέραυνος adj with bright lightning GED
  ἀργός adj white, bright, shining; swift GED
  Ἀργώ prop.n.fem Argo, lit. Swift LS
Greek: Ἀργεῖος n.masc Argive LRC
  argemōnē n.fem poppy, agrimony AHD/W7
  ἀργής adj white, gleaming GED
  ἄργιλλος n.fem argil, white clay CDC
  Argonautēs prop.n Argonaut AHD
  ἀργύρεος adj silver LRC
  ἄργυρος n.masc silver, white/bright metal GED
Anatolian  
Hittite: harkis adj white GED
Armenian  
Armenian: arcat' n coin, silver GED
Iranian  
Old Persian: (a)rdata n silver GED
Avestan: arəząh n brightness GED
  ərəzatam adj silver-colored GED
Indic  
Sanskrit: árjunas adj bright, silver-white; pure GED
  rajata adj/n white; silver CDC
  rajatám adj silver-colored GED
Tocharian  
Tocharian B: ārkwi adj white GED
Tocharian A: ārki adj white GED
  ārkyant n silver GED

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
dep=deponent
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
prop=proper
str=strong (inflection)
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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