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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: areq-   'to lock, guard, protect'

Semantic Field: to Save, Preserve, Keep Safe


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: airc n ark CDC
Gaelic: airc n ark CDC
Welsh: arch n ark CDC
Old English: (e)arc/erc/earce n.fem ark CDC/ASD
  orc n.masc ogre, demon, monster; infernal region(s) ASD
  *orcen n demon, evil spirit; sea monster ASD
Northumbrian: arc/ærc n ark CDC
Middle English: ark(e) n ark CDC
  exercise n exercise W7
  orke n ogre OED
English: arcane adj esoteric AHD/W7
  ark n (holy) chest, box, coffer; sacred boat AHD/W7
  autarky n self-sufficiency AHD/W7
  coerce vb.trans to compel by threat AHD/W7
  exercise n use, bringing into play AHD/W7
  orc n large goblin in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Orcrist prop.n sword (Goblin-Cleaver) in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
  Orcus prop.n god of death (Roman mythology) W2I
Old Frisian: erke n ark CDC
Dutch: ark n.fem ark CDC/ASD
Old High German: arahha/archa/arka n ark W7/CDC
Middle High German: arche n.fem ark CDC/ASD
German: arche n ark CDC
  autarkie n self-sufficiency W7
Old Norse: örk n.fem ark ASD
Icelandic: örk n ark CDC
Danish: ark n ark CDC
Swedish: ark n ark CDC
Gothic: arka n ark CDC
Latin: arca n.fem ark CDC
  arcanus adj secret W7
  arceo, arcēre vb to keep, shut up, enclose, defend W7
  arx, arcis n.fem citadel, fortress LRC
  coerceo, coercēre vb to enclose, restrain, keep in order W7
  exerceo, exercēre, exercitus vb to drive on, keep busy W7
  exercitium n.neut training, exercise W7
  Orcus prop.n.masc Orcus IEW
Portuguese: arca n ark CDC
Spanish: arca n ark CDC
  huerco n demon, monster; shade of dying person LRC
Old French: arche n ark CDC
Middle French: exercice n.masc exercise W7
French: arche n ark CDC
Provençal: archa n ark CDC
Italian: arca n ark CDC
  orco n giant, demon, monster LRC
Old Church Slavonic: raka n.fem coffin, sepulchre LRC
Greek: ἀρκεῐν vb to keep/ward off, suffice CDC
  autarkeia n.fem autarky W7
  autarkēs adj self-sufficient W7
Classical Armenian: argelum vb to deny, hinder, prohibit LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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