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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: at-   'to go; year, annum'

Semantic Field: Year


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: anniversarie n anniversary W7
  annual adj annual W7
  annuite n annuity W7
English: annals history, chronicles AHD/W7
  anniversary n annual recurrence of date marking notable event AHD/W7
  annual adj yearly AHD/W7
  annual n 1-year/annual event W7
  annuity n annual payment AHD/W7
  annum n year OED
  biennium n 2-year period AHD/W7
  decennary adj/n (re:) decennium AHD
  decennium n 10-year period AHD/W7
  millennium n 1000-year period AHD/W7
  perennial adj everlasting, lit. through years AHD/W7
  quadrennium n 4-year period AHD/W7
  quindecennial adj re: 15-year period AHD
  quinquennium n 5-year period AHD/W7
  septennial adj (happening) every 7 years AHD/W7
  sexennial adj (happening) every 6 years AHD
  superannuated adj outmoded AHD/W7
  triennium n 3-year period AHD/W7
  vicennial adj (happening) every 20 years AHD/W7
German: Annalen annals LRC
Gothic: *at-aþni n.neut year GED
  *aþn n.neut year GED
  aþnam years W7/GED
Oscan: acunum of years GED
  akeneí n.abl in the year GED
Umbrian: acnu years GED
Latin: annales annals W7
  annalis adj annual W7
  anniversārius adj recurring annually W7
  annus, anni n.masc annum GED
  annuus adj annual, lasting one year W7
  biennium n.neut 2-year period GED
  decennium n.neut 10-year period W7
  -ennium sfx year(s) W7
  perennis adj lasting the entire year GED
  quadriennium n.neut 4-year period W7
  quinquennium n.neut 5-year period W7
  quotannis adv yearly, annually LRC
  triennium n.neut 3-year period GED
Late Latin: annualis adj annual W7
  septennium n.neut 7-year period W7
  vicennium n.neut 20-year period W7
Medieval Latin: anniversāria n anniversary AHD
  annuitas, annuitatis n.fem annuity W7
  superannuor, superannuari, superannuatus vb.dep to be too old W7
New Latin: biennium n.neut every 2 years W7
  -ennium sfx year(s) W7
  millennium n.neut 1000-year period W7
Old French: annuel adj annual AHD
Anglo-French: annuite n annuity AHD
Middle French: annuel adj annual W7
  annuité n.fem annuity, annual tax/rent W7
Sanskrit: átati vb to go, walk GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
abl=ablative (case)
acc=accusative (case)
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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