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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 8. au̯-, au̯ēi-   'to perceive, understand, be aware of'

Semantic Fields: to Know; to Understand


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: audience n audience W7
  audit n audit W7
  ob(b)eien/ob(b)eyen vb to obey CDC
  oyez vb.imp oyez W7
English: aesthetic adj artistic, re: beauty AHD/W7
  anesthesia n loss of sensation AHD/W7
  audible adj (capable of being) heard AHD/W7
  audience n act/state of hearing AHD/W7
  audile n one whose mind favors auditory imagery AHD/W7
  audio- pfx hearing AHD/W7
  audit n hearing, audience AHD/OED
  audit vb to verify account via scrutiny W7
  audition n power/sense of hearing AHD/W7
  auditor n one who hears/listens AHD/W7
  auditorium n place where listeners sit AHD/W7
  auditory adj re: hearing W7
  obedient adj submissive to command/restraint CDC
  obeisant adj respectful, submissive CDC
  obey vb to harken, listen to; serve, be subject to CDC
  oyez vb.imp attend! hear ye! (before court/public proclamation) AHD/W7
  subaudition n act of intimating a thing expressed AHD/W7
German: ästhetisch adj aesthetic W7
  Audienz n.fem audience LRC
  auditiv adj auditory LRC
Latin: audientia n.fem hearing, listening, attention W7
  audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum vb to hear LRC
  auditio, auditionis n.fem hearing, listening W7
  auditus, auditūs n.masc act of hearing W7
  obædire/obedire vb to obey CDC
  oboedio, oboedire vb to obey, listen to W7
  -oedire vb to hear W7
Late Latin: audibilis adj audible W7
  auditorius adj auditory CDC
  obaudire vb to obey CDC
  subaudio, subaudīre, subauditus vb to understand W7
  subauditio, subauditionis n.fem understanding W7
Middle Latin: obedire vb to obey CDC
New Latin: aestheticus adj aesthetic, re: sense perception W7
  anesthesia n.fem lack of feeling W7
Portuguese: audiencia n audience CDC
  obedecer vb to obey CDC
  obéir vb to obey CDC
  ouvir vb to hear TLL
Spanish: audiencia n audience CDC
  obedecer vb to obey CDC
  oir vb to hear TLL
Old French: audience n audience CDC
  obeir vb to obey W7
Anglo-French: oir vb to hear W7
  oyez hear ye! W7
Middle French: audience n.fem audience W7
  audition n.fem the act of hearing W7
French: audience n audience CDC
  ouïr vb.arch to hear TLL
Italian: audienz(i)a n audience CDC
  obbedire vb to obey CDC
  udire vb to hear TLL
Old Church Slavonic: aviti, avl'jǫ, aviši vb.refl to reveal LRC
  javiti, jav'jǫ, javiši vb to appear LRC
Greek: aisthanesthai vb to perceive W7
  aisthēsis n.fem perception W7
  aisthētikos adj of sense perception W7
  anaisthēsia n.fem insensibility W7
Sanskrit: āvis adj evidently W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
imp=imperative (mood)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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