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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 10. au̯(e)-, au̯ē(i)-, u̯ē-   'to vent, blow'

Semantic Field: to Blow

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Breton: guent n wind GED
Welsh: gwynt n wind GED
English  
Old English: wāwan vb.wk to blow GED
  weder n.neut weather; wind, storm W7
  wind n.str.masc wind GED
  windwian vb.wk to fan, winnow GED
Middle English: ventail n ventail W7
  venten vb to vent W7
  weder n weather W7
  wind/wynd n wind CDC
  winewen vb to winnow W7
English: vent vb.trans to provide outlet/passage AHD/W7
  ventail n lower movable front of medieval helmet AHD/W7
  ventilate vb.trans to expose, discuss/examine/investigate freely/openly AHD/W7
  weather n state of atmosphere (w.r.t. heat/cold, calm/storm, wetness/dryness) AHD/W7
  Weathertop prop.n windy hill in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  wind n air in natural motion CDC
  Windfola prop.n Eowyn's horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Windlord prop.n eagle a.k.a. Gwaihir in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  winnow vb to sift/remove/separate via air current IEW
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: wāia vb.wk to blow GED
  weder n.neut weather, condition ASD
  wind n.str.masc wind GED
Middle Dutch: wāien vb.wk to blow GED
Dutch: weer n weather TLL
  wind n wind CDC
Old Saxon: wedar n.neut storm, weather ASD
  wind n.str.masc wind GED
Middle Low German: weien vb.wk to blow GED
Low German: wind n wind CDC
Old High German: wadal n.masc winnowing fan/basket GED
  wāen vb.wk to blow GED
  wājan vb to blow, breathe ASD
  wanna n.fem fan GED
  wedil n.masc winnowing fan/basket GED
  wetar n.neut weather, condition W7/ASD
  wint n.str.masc wind GED
  winta n.str.fem winnowing shovel GED
  wintōn vb.wk to winnow GED
  wint-scūvala n.str.fem winnowing shovel GED
German: wehen vb to blow CDC
  Wetter n.neut weather LRC
  Wind n.masc wind CDC
N-Germanic  
Old Icelandic: vindr n.str.masc wind GED
Icelandic: veðr n.neut weather, condition ASD
  vindr n.masc wind ASD
Danish: vejr n weather TLL
  vind n wind CDC
Old Swedish: vīa vb.wk to blow GED
Swedish: vind n wind CDC
  väder n weather TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: *dis-winþjan vb.wk.I to crush GED
  *waian vb.str.VII to blow GED
  winds/winþs n.masc wind GED/CDC
Crimean Gothic: *wintch/vvintch n.str.masc wind GED/CGo
Italic  
Latin: vannus n.fem winnowing fan/basket GED
  ventilābrum n.neut winnowing shovel GED
  ventilātus vb.ptc vented W7
  ventilō, ventilāre vb to vent, fan, winnow GED
  ventulus n.masc.dim light wind W7
  ventus n.masc wind GED
Middle French: esventer vb to expose to air W7
  vent n.masc wind W7
  ventaille n.fem wind W7
French: vent n.masc wind W7
Baltic  
Old Prussian: wetro n wind GED
Lithuanian: vėjas n wind GED
  vėtỹklė n winnowing shovel GED
  vėtyti vb to winnow GED
  vėtra n storm GED
Latvian: vẽjš n wind GED
Slavic  
Old Slavic: vetrŭ n wind W7
Old Church Slavonic: větrъ n storm GED
  vějati vb to blow GED
Russian: vieiate vb to blow CDC
  victerŭ n wind CDC
Hellenic  
Greek: ἄημα n.neut wind, gale, blast GED/IEW
  αἵνω vb to winnow GED
  ἀτμίς n.fem steam, vapor LRC
  ἀυτμή n breath GED/IEW
  ἄ(Ϝ)ησι vb to blow GED
Anatolian  
Hittite: huu̯ai- vb to run, flee GED
  huu̯ant- n wind GED
Iranian  
Avestan: vāiti vb to blow GED
  vātō n wind GED
  vayuš n wind GED
Indic  
Sanskrit: vā́tas n wind GED
  vā́ti vb to blow GED
  vā́nt- vb.pres.ptc blowing GED
  vāyuṣ n wind GED
Tocharian  
Tocharian B: yente n wind GED
Tocharian A: wänt n wind GED

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
VII=class 7
dim=diminutive
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pres=present (tense)
prop=proper
ptc=participle
str=strong (inflection)
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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