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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: au̯eg-, u̯ōg-, aug-, ug-   'to augment, increase, magnify'

Semantic Field: to Grow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: Augustus prop.n.masc August, Augustus W7/ASD
  ēacen adj/vb.ptc large GED
  ēacian vb.wk to abound GED
  ēcan/ī(e)can/ǣcan/ȳc(e)an vb.wk to eke, augment GED/ASD
  weaxan, wēox, wēoxon, wēaxen vb.str.VII to wax, grow LRC
  wōcor n.fem increase, usury GED
  wuduweaxe n woodwaxen W7
Middle English: auctorisen vb to authorize AHD
  auctorite n authority MEV
  auctour n author W7
  augmenten vb to augment W7
  augur n augur CDC
  August prop.n August W7
  auto(u)r n author CDC
  auxillary adj auxiliary AHD
  eken vb to eke, augment W7
  ekename n nickname W7
  nekename n nickname, additional name W7
  waxen/wexen vb to wax CDC
  wodewexen n woodwaxen W7
English: auction n public property sale to highest bidder AHD/W7
  augend n quantity to which addend is added AHD/W7
  augment vb to enlarge, increase AHD/W7
  augur n official diviner in ancient Rome AHD/W7
  augur vb to predict/foretell (esp. from omens) W7
  augury n divination from omens/portents W7
  August prop.n 8th month (in Gregorian calendar) TLL
  august adj marked by majestic grandeur/dignity AHD/W7
  Augustus prop.n 1st Roman Emperor (27 BC - AD 14) TLL
  author n writer, composer AHD/W7
  authority n expert, original author; citation, testimony W7
  authorize vb to sanction, empower, invest with legal force AHD/W7
  auxesis n growth AHD/W7
  auxiliary adj aiding, offering/providing help AHD/W7
  auxin n organic substance able to promote plant growth AHD/W7
  eke vb.trans to increase, lengthen AHD/W7
  inaugurate vb.trans to begin, induct into office AHD/W7
  nickname n descriptive short name/tag AHD/W7
  waist n body region between hips and belly AHD/W7
  wax vb.intrans to grow (large/strong), increase AHD/W7
  woodwaxen n low bushy Eurasian leguminous shrub AHD/W7
British English: authorise vb to authorize LRC
Old Frisian: āken vb.str.past.ptc grown, pregnant GED
  waxa vb.str to wax, grow GED
  wōker n.str interest GED
Dutch: wassen vb to wax CDC
Old Saxon: ōkan vb.str.past.ptc grown, pregnant GED
  ōkian vb.wk to eke GED
  wahsan vb.str to wax, grow GED
Old Low German: wahsan vb to wax, grow ASD
Old High German: ouhhōn/auhhōn vb.wk to eke, add GED/ASD
  wahsan vb.str to wax, grow GED
  wahst n.str.masc/fem growth, stature GED
  wuohhar/wuochar n.str yield, gain, fruit, increase GED/ASD
Middle High German: wahsen vb to wax CDC
German: Auktion n.fem auction LRC
  Autor n.masc author LRC
  wachsen vb to wax CDC
Old Norse: auka vb.str to eke, add GED
  auki n increase LRC
  vaxa vb to wax, grow LRC
Old Icelandic: auka vb.str to eke GED
  ōkr n.neut interest, usury GED
  vaxa vb.str to wax, grow GED
  vexa vb.wk to cause to grow GED
  vǫxtr n.masc growth, stature GED
Icelandic: vaxa vb to wax, grow ASD
Danish: voxe vb to wax CDC
Swedish: växa vb to wax CDC
Gothic: *aukan vb.str.VII to eke GED
  wahsjan vb.str.VI to wax, grow GED
  wahstus n.str.masc size, stature; growth GED
  *wokrs n.masc fruit, offspring, increase, interest GED/ASD
Latin: auctio, auctionis n.fem increase W7
  auctor n.masc author, promoter, originator W7
  auctus vb.perf.ptc increased GED
  augendus ger in order to increase W7
  augeo, augēre, auxi, auctum vb to eke, increase GED
  augmentum n.neut growth, increase, augmentation GED
  augur n.masc.fem seer, augur W7
  augurium, augurii n.masc augury, interpretation of omens LRC
  auguro, augurare vb to augur W7
  Augustus prop.n Augustus, a.k.a. Octavian TLL
  Augustus prop.n August, 6th month (in Julian calendar) W7
  augustus adj/vb.ptc august, noble, exalted; holy, consecrated GED/CLD
  auxiliaris adj auxiliary W7
  auxilium n.neut help, aid GED
Late Latin: augmento, augmentāre vb to augment W7
  augmentum n.neut increase W7
Medieval Latin: auctōrizāre vb to authorize AHD
New Latin: auxesis n.fem growth W7
Portuguese: agosto prop.n August TLL
  augmentar vb to augment CDC
  augusto adj august CDC
  autor n author CDC
Spanish: agosto prop.n August TLL
  augusto adj august CDC
  autor n author CDC
Old French: au(c)torité n authority MEV
  augmenter vb to augment CDC
  autor/auteur n author CDC
  autoriser vb to authorize AHD
Old North French: auctour n.masc author W7
Anglo-French: autour n author CDC
Middle French: augmenter vb to augment W7
French: août prop.n August TLL
  auguste adj august CDC
  auteur n author CDC
Old Occitan: auctor/actor n author CDC
Italian: agosto prop.n August TLL
  augusto adj august CDC
  aumentare vb to augment CDC
  autore n author CDC
Old Prussian: aucktai-rikijskan n.acc government GED
  auginnons vb.act.past.ptc raised GED
Lithuanian: augìnti vb to bring up GED
  augmuõ n growth GED
  áugti vb to grow GED
  áukštas adj high GED
Latvian: aúgsts adj high GED
  augsts adj high, chief LRC
  aûgt vb to grow GED
Homeric Greek: ἀ(Ϝ)έξω vb to increase GED
Greek: ἀέξομαι vb to grow GED
  Αὐγούστος n.masc Augustus LRC
  αὐξάνω vb to increase GED
  auxēsis n.fem increase, growth W7
  αὖξις n growth GED
  αὔξω vb to increase GED
  ἀ(Ϝ)έξω vb to increase GED
Armenian: awčan n aid, protection GED
Avestan: aojō n strength GED
  ugra- adj strong GED
  uχšyeiti vb to grow GED
  vaχšaiti vb to cause to grow GED
Sanskrit: úkṣati vb to grow, strengthen GED
  ugrás adj powerful GED
  ójas n strength GED
  ójma n strength GED
  vákṣaṇam n strengthening GED
  vakṣáyati vb to increase GED
  vavákṣa vb.perf grown GED
Tokharian: okar n growth GED
  oko n fruit GED
Tocharian B: aukšu adj old GED
Tocharian A: oks- vb to grow GED
  oksiš vb to grow GED
  okšu adj old GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VI=class 6
VII=class 7
acc=accusative (case)
act=active (voice)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
perf=perfect (aspect)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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