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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bak-   'stick, staff; to hit, peg'

Semantic Fields: Arms, Weapons; to Hit, Strike, Beat


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Cornish: pig n peg, prick CDC
Welsh: pegor n peg, pivot CDC
  pegwn n peg, pole, axis, pivot, spindle CDC
  pig n peg, peak, point CDC
Old English: pægel n.masc pail, wine-bucket IEW/ASD
Middle English: bail n bail, custody W7
  bailie/baillif n bailie/bailiff W7
  baill(i) n bailey; prison MEV/W7
  baillifwik/bailiewike n bailiwick AHD
  pegge n peg W7
English: bacillus n aerobic rod-shaped bacterium AHD/W7
  bacterium, bacteria n microscopic single-celled organism AHD/W7
  baculiform adj rod-shaped AHD/W7
  baguette n bead, molding smaller than astragal AHD/W7
  bail n security for appearance W7
  bailey n outer wall of castle AHD/W7
  bailie n.dial bailiff W7
  bailiff n sheriff's employee, minor court officer W7
  bailiwick n office/jurisdiction of bailiff AHD/W7
  campylobacter n lit. twisted bacteria AHD
  debacle n violent breakup of river ice AHD/W7
  imbecile n mentally deficient person AHD/W7
  pail n bucket IEW
  peg n plug, pin for a hole AHD/W7
  peg vb to restrict, pin down, put peg into W7
Middle Dutch: pegge n peg, pin AHD
German: Bakterie n.fem bacterium LRC
  Bazille n.fem bacillus LRC
Danish: pig n peg, spike CDC
  pik n peg, pike CDC
  pægel n pail, half a pint ASD
Swedish: pigg n peg, spike CDC
  pik n peg, pike CDC
Latin: bacillum n.neut.dim small staff CLD
  baculus/baculum n.masc/neut staff, walking stick W7/CLD
  bāulus n carrier AHD
  imbēcillus, imbēcilla, imbēcillum adj weak, feeble, weak-minded W7/CLD
Vulgar Latin: bacculo, bacculare vb to bar with a stick W7
Middle Latin: bal(l)ium n bailey CDC
Medieval Latin: bacillus n.masc.dim small rod/staff W7
  *bāiulīvus n steward, estate overseer AHD
New Latin: bacterium n.neut microscopic plant W7
Old French: bail n bail, custody, jurisdiction W7
  baille n.fem wet-nurse, nanny W7
  baillif n bailiff W7
  balie n.fem bailey, palisade W7
Middle French: bacler vb to bar W7
  desbacler vb to unbar W7
French: baguette n.fem small stick; loaf of French bread W7
  bailli n.masc bailie LRC
  bailliage n.masc bailiwick LRC
  débâcle n.fem debacle W7
  débâcler vb to unbar W7
  imbécile n.masc idiot W7
Old Provençal: baclar vb to bar (with a stick) W7
Italian: bacchio n rod, stick CDC
Greek: βακτηρία n.fem cane, staff LS
  βακτήριον n.neut.dim small cane/staff LS
  βάκτρον n.neut rod, stick, staff, cudgel LS


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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