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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bhardhā   'beard'

Semantic Field: Beard

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Cornish: barf n beard CDC
Welsh: barf n beard CDC
English  
Old English: beard n.str.masc beard GED
Middle English: barbe n barb, cutting edge; beard W7/MEV
  barbel(le)/barbylle n barbel W7/CDC
  barber/barb(o)ur/barbor n barber W7/CDC
  berd(e) n beard W7/MEV
  halberd n halberd, weapon W7
English: barb n hook, thorn AHD/W7
  barbel n European freshwater fish AHD/W7
  barbellate adj re: short stiff-hooked hair AHD/W7
  barber n one who cuts/dresses hair AHD/W7
  barbette n shooting platform or earthen mound AHD/W7
  barbicel n small hook-bearing process on barbule of feather AHD/W7
  barbule n tiny barb AHD
  beard n man's lower facial hair AHD/W7
  halberd n long-handled pike or battle-axe AHD/W7
  rebarbative adj crabbed, repellent AHD/W7
  Treebeard prop.n Ent a.k.a. Fangorn in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: berd n.str.masc beard GED
Frisian: berd/bird n.masc beard ASD
Dutch: baard n beard CDC
Old Saxon: barda n beard RPN
Middle Low German: bard n.str.masc beard GED
Old High German: bart n.str.masc beard GED
  burst n.str.fem bristle GED
Middle High German: bart n beard CDC
German: Barbe n.fem barbel LRC
  Bart n.masc beard ASD
  Hellebarde n.fem halberd LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Icelandic: barð n.str.masc beard GED
  barð n.str.neut edge GED
Icelandic: bart n.neut beard ASD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: *bards n beard GED
Crimean Gothic: *bart/bars n beard CGo/GED
Italic  
Latin: barba n.fem beard GED
  barbula n.fem little beard W7
Vulgar Latin: barbellus n.masc.dim small beard W7
Middle Latin: barbellus n.dim small barbel CDC
  barbus n barbel CDC
Medieval Latin: barbātōr n barber AHD
  *barbellus n.dim barbel AHD
  barbus n beard AHD
New Latin: barbella n.fem short stiff hair W7
  barbellatus adj barbellate CDC
  barbicella n.fem.dim dim. W7
Portuguese: barba n beard CDC
Spanish: barba n beard CDC
Old French: barbe n.fem barb; beard MEV
  barbel n barbel CDC
  barbeor/barbier n barber CDC
Anglo-French: barbour n barber CDC
Middle French: barbe n.fem beard W7
  barbel n.masc a kind of fish W7
  barbeor n.masc barber W7
  hallebarde n.fem weapon W7
  rébarbatif adj rebarbative W7
  rebarber vb to be repellent W7
French: barbe n beard CDC
  barbeau n barbel CDC
  barbette n.fem.dim barbette CDC
  barbier n barber CDC
  rébarbatif adj rebarbative, unwelcoming W7
Old Occitan: barba n beard CDC
Italian: barba n beard CDC
  barbiere n barber CDC
Baltic  
Old Prussian: bordus n beard GED
Lithuanian: barzdà n beard GED
Latvian: bàrda n beard GED
Slavic  
Polish: broda n beard CDC
Czech: brada n beard CDC
Serbian: brada n beard CDC
Old Church Slavonic: brada n beard GED
Russian: boroda n beard CDC
Indic  
Sanskrit: bhr̥ṣṭí- n.pfx point GED

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
dim=diminutive
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pfx=prefix
prop=proper
str=strong (inflection)
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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