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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bhei-   'bee (insect)'

Semantic Field: Bee


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bech n bee RPN
Welsh: bydalf n beehive LRC
Old English: beó/bī, beón n.fem bee(s) CDC
  bēo n.fem bee RPN
  beofian vb to tremble CDC
  Bēowulf prop.n.masc Bear, lit. bee-wolf LRC
Middle English: bee, been n bee(s) CDC
English: bee n social insect: maker of honey AHD/W7
Old Dutch: bie n bee CDC
Dutch: bij(e) n.fem bee CDC/ASD
Old Saxon: bibhōn vb to tremble CDC
Low German: bigge n bee CDC
Old High German: bibēn vb to tremble CDC
  bī(n)a/pīa n.fem bee RPN/ASD
  bini n.neut bee CDC
Middle High German: biben vb to tremble CDC
  bīn/bīe n.fem bee CDC/ASD
  bin(e) n.neut bee CDC
German: beben vb to tremble CDC
  Biene/Beie n.fem bee ASD
Old Norse:  n.neut bee ASD
  bý-fluga n.fem bee-fly ASD
Icelandic: bifa vb to tremble CDC
  bȳ n bee CDC
Danish: bi n.neut bee CDC/ASD
Swedish: bi n.neut bee CDC/ASD
Latin: fūcus, fūci n.masc drone bee LRC
Old Prussian: bitte n bee LRC
Lithuanian: bijoti vb to fear CDC
  bìtė n.fem bee RPN
  bitynas n.masc apiary LD
Latvian: bite n.fem bee LRC
Old Church Slavonic: bojati vb to fear CDC
  bьčela n bee RPN
Russian: bojatĭ vb to fear CDC
Greek: φοβέω vb to terrify LRC
Baluchi: bēnog n honey RPN
Dameli: bin n honey RPN
  binaká n bee RPN
Shumashti: bəen n honey RPN
Pashayi: bēn n honey RPN
Sanskrit: bhī vb to fear CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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