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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. bhel-, bhlē-   'to grow, spread, swell, inflate'

Semantic Fields: to Grow; to Stretch


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ball n.masc penis, part of body GED
Old English: ballice adv defiantly, bravely GED
  b(e)ald adj bold GED/ASD
  b(e)aldor n.str.masc prince, master, lit. bolder GED
  *beall n ball AHD
  bealloc n.fem testicle GED
  bealluc, beallucas n testicle(s) RPN
  beldo/byldo n bield W2I
  blǣd n.masc breath, blowing GED
  blǣd(d)re n.fem bladder, blister, swelling W7/ASD
  blǣs n.neut blowing GED
  *blǣsan vb to blow, blaze CDC
  blǣst n.str.masc blast, breath, blowing GED
  blǣstan vb.wk to blast, blow GED
  blāwan vb.wk to blow GED
  blōtan vb.str to worship (with sacrifice) GED
  blōtere n sacrificer GED
  bolla n.wk.masc bowl, dish, vase GED
  bula n bull W7
  bulluc n.str.neut bull, bullock, breeding animal GED
  byldan vb.wk to encourage GED
Middle English: bal/ball(e) n ball W7/CDC
  bald(e)/bold(e) adj bold MEV/CDC
  bale n bale W7
  baleine/bale(y)ne n whale, baleen W7/CDC
  ballock/balluk/balok n ballock W7/CDC
  baude n bawd CDC
  bawde n bawdry W7
  beeld/belde n bield W2I
  blad(d)er/bled(d)er/bladdre n bladder W7/CDC
  blasen vb to blaze W7
  blast/blest n blast W7/CDC
  blowen/blawen vb to blow W7/CDC
  bole n bole W7
  boll n boll W7
  bolle n bowl W7
  boulderston n boulder (stone) CDC
  bule/bole n bull W7/MEV
  bulk n bulk W7
  flavor n flavor W7
  folie n folly W7
  fool n fool W7
  fullen vb to full W7
English: afflatus n inspiration, divine imparting of knowledge/power AHD/W7
  Balder prop.n comely but ill-fated son of Odin LRC
  Baldor prop.n Rohan prince in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  bale n large bundle (of goods) AHD/W7
  baleen n whalebone AHD/W7
  ball n round(ish) body/mass AHD/W7
  ballock n testis AHD/W7
  balloon n nonporous air-filled bag made of light but tough material AHD/W7
  ballot n small ball used for secret vote AHD/W7
  ballottement n finger push on uterine wall to diagnose pregnancy AHD/W7
  bawd n pander AHD/W7
  bield n.obs boldness, courage, confidence W2I
  bilberry n plant akin to blueberry AHD/W7
  biltong n jerked meat AHD/W7
  bladder n membranous sac in animal serving as liquid receptacle AHD/W7
  blase adj sophisticated, jaded re: pleasure/excitement AHD/W7
  blast n violent gust of air AHD/W7
  blather n nonsense, foolishness LRC
  blather vb.intrans to talk foolishly AHD/W7
  blaze vb.trans to proclaim, make public/conspicuous AHD/W7
  blow, blew, blown vb.str to move (air) with speed/force AHD/W7
  bold adj intrepid, fearless before danger AHD/W7
  bole n base/trunk of tree AHD/W7
  boll n pod/capsule of plant AHD/W7
  bollix vb.trans to throw into disorder AHD/W7
  boulder n rounded detached much-worn rock mass AHD/W7
  bowl n concave/hemispherical vessel for holding liquid AHD/W7
  bulk n volume, magnitude AHD/W7
  bull n adult male bovine animal AHD/W7
  bullock n steer, castrated bull AHD
  Bullroarer prop.n a.k.a. Bandobras Took in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  conflate vb to fuse, meld, combine, bring together AHD
  deflate vb to lose/remove air AHD/CDC
  flabellum n body part/organ resembling fan AHD/W7
  flageolet n small flute resembling treble recorder AHD/W7
  flatulent adj marked/affected by intestinal/stomach gases AHD/W7
  flatus n gas generated in bowels/stomach AHD/W7
  flavescent adj yellowish, turning yellow AHD
  flavin n yellow water-soluble pigment AHD/W7
  flavoprotein n enzyme containing flavin AHD
  flavor n odor, fragrance AHD/W7
  follicle n small anatomical cavity/deep narrow-mouthed depression AHD/W7
  folly n lack of foresight/good sense/normal prudence AHD/W7
  fool n one lacking in judgment/prudence AHD/W7
  full vb.trans to shrink/thicken (woolen cloth) using moisture/heat/pressure AHD/W7
  inflate vb to swell/distend with air/gas AHD/W7
  insufflate vb.trans to blow on/into AHD/W7
  isinglass n whitish, semi-transparent pure gelatin AHD/W7
  ithyphallic adj re: phallus carried in ancient bacchic festival procession AHD/W7
  phallus n (symbol/representation of) male sexual organ AHD/W7
  phellem n nonliving water-resistant protective plant tissue AHD
  phelloderm n tissue produced inwardly by cork cambium AHD
  phellogen n secondary meristem initiating phellem/phelloderm in plant stem AHD/W7
  rocambole n European leek AHD/W7
  souffle n dish made of egg yolk or whipped egg whites AHD/W7
Scots English: blather/blether n bladder CDC
  blether vb to blather CDC
Old Frisian: balde adv quickly ASD
  blāu adj bluish GED
  bolla n.masc bowl ASD
Old Dutch: blæder/blære n.fem bladder ASD
Middle Dutch: bale n bale ODE
  bille n buttock AHD
  blæder n bladder CDC
  blæsen vb to blaze, sound trumpet CDC
  blase n bladder W7
  blāsen vb to blow W7
  bolle n boll, round object AHD
  huusblase n sturgeon bladder; isinglass W7
Dutch: baal n bale ODE
  bal n ball, round bundle CDC
  blaar n.fem bladder ASD
  blaas n bladder TLL
  blazen vb to blaze, blow, breathe, sound trumpet CDC
  bol n.masc bowl ASD
  boud adj bold CDC
  huizenblas n isinglass W7
Afrikaans: bil n buttock W7
  biltong n biltong W7
Old Flemish: bale n ball/bale, round bundle CDC
Flemish: bal n ball CDC
Old Saxon: bald adj bold, merry GED/AHD
  beldian vb.wk to encourage GED
Middle Low German: bal n ball CDC
  balde/bolde adv soon, quickly, at once CDC
  bale n bale, round bundle CDC
  blādere n bladder CDC
  blāsen vb.str to blow, breathe, blaze GED/CDC
  bulle n.str.neut bull, bullock, breeding animal GED
Low German: ball n ball CDC
  bladere/bledder/blare n bladder CDC
Old High German: bald adj bold GED
  balden vb.wk to encourage GED
  baldī n.wk.fem bravery GED
  balla/palla n.fem ball, bale GED/CDC
  ballo n.wk.masc ball GED
  blāen vb to blow W7
  blāhan vb.str to blow CDC
  blā(j)an vb.wk to blow GED/ASD
  blāo adj bluish GED
  blāsa n.fem bubble GED
  blāsan vb.str to blow GED
  blāsen vb to blow RPN
  blāst n.str.masc blast, breath GED
  blāt n.masc blowing GED
  blātara/blattara/blātra n.fem bladder W7/ASD/CDC
  blōzan/plo(az)zan vb.str to worship (with sacrifice) GED/ASD
  bluostar n.str.neut offering GED
  bluostrāri n.str.masc sacrificial priest GED
  bolla n bowl CDC
  bolla n blister W7
  hirni-polla n skull, lit. brain-bowl ASD
  ploz-hūs n.str.neut temple GED
Middle High German: bald adj bold CDC
  balle n ball CDC
  blæjen vb to blow ASD
  blæwen vb to blow CDC
  blāsen vb to blow, breathe, blaze CDC
  blast n.masc blast (of air/wind), blowing, breeze ASD
  blāter(e)/blatter n.fem bladder ASD/CDC
  blōdern vb to blather, chatter W7
  bluoten vb to sacrifice ASD
  bole n bole, thick plank CDC
  bolle n bowl CDC
  hirn-bolle n skull, lit. brain-bowl ASD
New High German: bille n.fem penis GED
  bulle n.fem vulva GED
German: bald adv soon, quickly CDC
  Ball n.masc ball CDC
  Ballen n.masc bale, package CDC
  bladdern vb.dial to blather CDC
  blähen vb to blow ASD
  Blase n.fem bladder, blister TLL
  blasen vb to blow, breathe, blaze CDC
  Blast n blast (of air/wind) CDC
  Blatter n.fem bladder ASD
  Bohle n.fem bole, thick plank CDC
  Bolle n bulb W7
  Bowle n.fem (punch) bowl CDC
  Bulle n bull TLL
  Rockenbolle n European leek W7
Old Norse: Baldr n.masc Balder: Norse god W7
  ballr adj bold ASD
  blaðra vb to blather, chatter W7
  bolli n.masc bowl ASD
  bolr n bole W7
  bulki n cargo W7
  böllr n ball, testicle W7
Old Icelandic: baldinn adj brave, defiant GED
  Baldr prop.n Balder: Norse god GED
  ballr adj bold GED
  bella vb.wk to encourage GED
  blār adj bluish GED
  blāsa vb.str to blow GED
  blāstr n.str.masc blast, breath GED
  blōt n.neut sacrifice GED
  blōta vb.str to worship (with sacrifice) GED
  blōt-goð n.str.masc (heathen) priest GED
  blǣr n.masc gust of wind GED
  boli n.str.neut bull, bullock, breeding animal GED
  bǫllr n.str.masc ball, testicle GED
  her-baldr n.str.masc leader of army GED
Icelandic: ballr adj bold CDC
  blaðr n blather CDC
  blaðra n.fem bladder ASD
  blaðra vb to blather CDC
  blāsa vb to blow, breathe, blaze CDC
  blāstr n.masc blast (of air/wind), breeze, blowing ASD
  blōta vb to sacrifice ASD
  bolli n bowl CDC
  bolr/bulr n bole CDC
  böllr n ball CDC
Norwegian: böllr n ball CDC
Old Danish: blothe vb to sacrifice ASD
  bold adj bold CDC
Danish: bal n billiard ball CDC
  balde n ball, testicle CDC
  balle n bale CDC
  blære n bladder ASD
  blæse vb to blow, breathe, blaze CDC
  blæst n blast (of air/wind) CDC
  bold n ball CDC
  bolle n bowl CDC
  bul n bole, stump, log CDC
  buldre vb to make loud noise CDC
  bølle n whortleberry W7
Old Swedish: bol/bul n bole, body CDC
Swedish: bal n bale CDC
  blota vb to sacrifice ASD
  blæddra/bläddra n.fem bladder ASD/CDC
  blåsa n bladder TLL
  blåsa vb to blow, breathe, blaze CDC
  blåst n blast (of air/wind) CDC
  boll n ball CDC
  buller n noise W7
  bullersten n large stone in a stream W7
  bål n bowl ASD
  bål n bole, body CDC
Gothic: balþaba adv boldly, frankly GED
  balþei n bield CDC
  *balþs adj bold ASD
  blēsan vb to blow, breathe, blaze CDC
  *blostr n offering GED
  blotan vb.str.VII to serve (God), honor (through sacrifice) GED
  *uf-blesan vb.str.VII to boast, blaze, blow, puff up GED/CDC
Latin: afflo, afflāre, afflātus vb to blow on W7
  balaena n.fem whale W7
  flabellum n.neut fan W7
  flātus n.masc wind, breath, blowing GED
  flāvus adj golden yellow GED
  flō, flāre vb to blow RPN
  folliculus n.masc little bag; inflated ball; scrotum RPN
  follis n.masc leather bag, bellows; scrotum RPN
  fullō n.masc fuller W7
  inflo, inflare, inflatus vb to inflate, blow in W7
  phallus n.masc phallus W7
  sufflō, sufflāre vb to blow, puff up W7
Vulgar Latin: flabeolum n.neut flute W7
  flator n.masc flavor W7
  fullo, fullāre vb to full W7
Late Latin: insufflo, insufflāre, insufflāvī, insufflātus vb to insufflate W7
Middle Latin: bal(l)a n ball, bale, package, round bundle CDC
  palla/bala n ball, bale CDC
New Latin: flabellum n.neut body organ resembling fan W7
Portuguese: bala n ball, bale CDC
  balãa n balloon CDC
Spanish: bala n ball, bale CDC
  balon n football; large bale CDC
  balota n ballot CDC
Old French: bald/baud/boud adj bold, gay, lively CDC
  balene n baleen CDC
  bal(l)e n ball, bale CDC
  flajol n.masc small flute W7
  flajolet n.masc small flute W7
  fol adj fool, crazy W7
  folie n.fem folly, craziness W7
Middle French: baloter vb to toss about W7
  balotte n.fem little ball W7
  flaor n.fem flavor W7
  flatulent adj passing gas W7
  flavor n.fem flavor W7
  fouler vb to trample W7
French: baleine n baleen CDC
  balle n ball, bale CDC
  ballon n.masc balloon; large football; rounded glass for fine alcohols W7
  bal(l)otte n ballot CDC
  ballottement n.masc shaking, rolling motion W7
  ballotter vb to toss around W7
  blasé adj blase W7
  bol n bowl CDC
  flageolet n.masc flageolet; haricot bean W7
  rocambolesque adj extravagant, re: story of extraordinary adventures W7
  souffle n.masc breath, light wind W7
  souffler, soufflē vb to blow, puff up W7
Old Occitan: bala n ball, bale CDC
Italian: balla n.fem bale CDC
  ballone n.masc large football W7
  ballotta n.fem ballot ball; boiled chestnut W7/CID
  balod adj bold, gay CDC
  palla n ball CDC
  pallone n balloon, football CDC
Lithuanian: bulė n buttocks GED
  bulìs n buttocks GED
Greek: ithyphallikos adj with phallus erect W7
  ithyphallos n.masc erect phallus W7
  φάλης n penis GED
  phallaina n.fem whale, sea monster W7
  φαλλός n penis GED
  phellos n.masc cork W7
  φληνέω vb to be talkative GED
Armenian: bl-roy n.gen hill GED
  bolor adj round GED
Sanskrit: bulis n.fem vulva, buttocks GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VII=class 7
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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