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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bhelg̑h-   'to swell, bulge, billow'

Semantic Field: to Grow

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: bolg n.masc sack GED/IEW
  bolgaim vb to swell GED
Middle Irish: bolg n.masc bag, belly, stomach W7/IED
Irish: bolg n bag, belly RPN
Welsh: bol n sack, belly GED
  bola n sack, belly GED
  boly n sack, belly GED
Gaulish: bolg- n bag, belly LRC
  bulga n leather sack GED
English  
Old English: bæl(i)g/bielg n.str.masc bulge, (leather) bag W7/ASD
  belgan vb.str.III to swell up, be angry GED
  belgas n.pl bellows MEV
  bel(i)g/byl(i)g/bilig n.str.masc bulge, bag GED/ASD
  bolster n.masc bolster CDC/ASD
Middle English: bellewys n.pl bellows MEV
  below, bel(o)wes n bellow(s) W7/CDC
  bely/beli n belly W7/CDC
  bolster/bolstre n bolster W7/CDC
  bowgette n budget W7
  *bylge n billow CDC
English: bellows n tool/machine to expand/contract, drawing in/expelling air AHD/W7
  belly n stomach, abdomen AHD/W7
  billow n wave AHD/W7
  billow vb to surge, swell, rise/roll in billows OED
  blagging n conversation, informal talk AHD
  Bolger prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  bolster n long pillow/cushion extending full width of bed AHD/W7
  Budgeford prop.n hobbit town in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  budget n (leather) pack/pouch/wallet AHD/W7
  bulge n lowest area in ship's inner hull AHD/W7
  bulge vb to swell, jut out W7
Scots English: bowster n bolster CDC
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: balga n skin, belly CDC
  ovir-bulgen vb.past.ptc enraged GED
Old Dutch: bolghe/bulghe n bulge, bag CDC
Dutch: balg n.masc bulge, bag ASD
  blaasbalg n.masc bellows CDC
  bolster n bolster CDC
Old Saxon: balg n.str.masc bulge, bag GED
  belgan vb.str.III to swell up, be angry GED
Low German: bulge n bulge, billow CDC
Old High German: balg n.str.masc bulge, bag, skin GED
  belgan vb.str.III to swell up, be angry GED
  blasbalg n bellows CDC
  bolstar n bolster CDC
  bulga n.fem bulge, bag, leather sack GED
Middle High German: balc n.masc bulge, bag ASD
  bolster n bolster CDC
  bulge n bag, billow CDC
German: Balg n.masc bag ASD
  Blasebalg n.masc bellows CDC
  Polster n.neut bolster CDC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: belgr n.masc bulge, bag ASD
  bylgja n bag W7
Old Icelandic: belgja vb.wk to cause to swell GED
  belgr n.str.masc bag, belly, flayed animal skin GED
  bolginn vb.past.ptc swollen GED
Icelandic: belgr n.masc bag CDC
  blāstrbelgr n.masc bellows CDC
  bōlstr n bolster CDC
  bylgia n billow CDC
Danish: blæsebælg n.masc bellows CDC
  bolster n bed-ticking CDC
  bælg n.masc bulge, bag ASD
  bölge n billow CDC
Swedish: blåsbalg n bellows CDC
  bolster n bed CDC
  bölja n billow CDC
  bälg n skin, case, belly CDC
E-Germanic  
Gothic: *balgs n.masc skin, leather bag GED
  ufbauljan vb to billow, puff up CDC
Italic  
Middle French: bougette n.fem leather bag W7
  bou(l)ge n.masc leather bag W7
Baltic  
Old Prussian: balsinis n pillow GED
  po-balso n bolster GED
Latvian: pa-bàlsts n.masc pillow for the head GED/IEW
Slavic  
Serbo-Croatian: blàzina n pillow, bolster GED
Slovenian: blazína n feather-bed GED
Iranian  
Avestan: barəziš n.neut pillow GED/IEW
Indic  
Sanskrit: upa-barhaṇam n cover, bolster GED
  upa-bárhanī n.fem cover, bolster GED/IEW
  barhíṣ n.neut sacrificial straw GED

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)
prop=proper
ptc=participle
str=strong (inflection)
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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