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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. bher-   'to boil, swell, well up'

Semantic Fields: to Boil (intrans.); to Grow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: beorma/bearm n.masc barm GED/ASD
  brǣþ/brēþ n.fem breath, vapor GED/ASD
  brim-man n.masc sailor, lit. sea man LRC
Middle English: berme n barm W7
  breth n breath W7
  brethen vb to breathe W7
  broþe adj fierce MEV
  broþely adv fiercely MEV
  ferment n ferment W7
  fervent adj fervent W7
  fervour n fervor W7
English: barm n yeast/froth on fermenting malt liquor AHD/W7
  barmy adj full of froth/ferment AHD/W7
  breath n air charged with odor/fragrance AHD/W7
  breathe vb to emit aura/fragrance AHD/W7
  breeze n residue from making coke/charcoal AHD/W7
  defervescence n subsidence of fever AHD/W7
  effervesce vb.intrans to hiss/foam/bubble as gas escapes AHD/W7
  ferment n agent (e.g. yeast) causing fermentation AHD/W7
  ferment vb to brew/become (e.g.) alcoholic beverage LRC
  fervent adj glowing, very hot AHD/W7
  fervid adj burning, very hot AHD/W7
  fervor n intense heat AHD/W7
Frisian: barm/berme n barm CDC
Middle Dutch: bræyen vb to roast GED
Dutch: barm n.masc barm, lees, dregs  
Middle Low German: barm/berm n barm CDC
  brādem n.str.masc vapor GED
Low German: barm(e)/borme n barm CDC
Old High German: brādam n breath W7
Middle High German: bradem n.masc breath ASD
  bræjen vb.wk to smell, be fragrant GED
German: Barme/Bärme n.fem barm ASD
  Bradem n.masc breath ASD
  fermentieren vb to ferment LRC
Old Norse: bráð-liga adv soon, rashly, hastily, at once MEV/ICE
  bráðr adj rash, hasty, impatient LRC
Old Icelandic: brādna vb to melt GED
  brǣða vb to melt GED
Danish: bærme n barm, lees, dregs ASD
Swedish: bärma/bærme n barm, lees, dregs CDC/ASD
Crimean Gothic: breen vb to roast GED
Old Latin: fervō vb to boil, bubble GED
Latin: defervescens, defervescentis adj/vb.ptc ceasing to boil W7
  defervesco, defervescere vb to stop boiling W7
  effervesco, effervescere vb to bubble, boil W7
  fermentum n.neut yeast, barm W7
  fervens, ferventis adj/vb.ptc boiling W7
  ferveō, fervēre vb to seethe, boil, bubble GED/RPN
  fervesco, fervescere vb to begin to boil W7
  fervidus adj boiling, foaming W7
  fervor n.masc boiling heat, seething W7
  frĕtus/frĕtum n.masc/neut strait, gulf, (surging of the) sea GED
Portuguese: fervor n fervor TLL
Spanish: hervor n fervor TLL
Old French: braser vb to burn W7
  brasier n.masc fire of hot coals W7
  brese n.fem live coals W7
Middle French: fervent adj fervent, ardent W7
  ferveur n.fem fervor W7
French: braise n.fem coal, cinders W7
  braiser vb to cook over coals W7
  braser vb to join metals by brazing W7/R1
  brasier n.fem furnace, large open fire W7
  ferveur n fervor TLL
Italian: fervore n fervor TLL


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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