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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. bherem-   'to stand out; brim, edge, hem'

Semantic Field: Edge


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: brēm(b)el/brǣmbel/brēmber n.masc bramble W7/ASD
  brōm n broom W7
  brȳmme n.masc brim, brink, border ASD
Middle English: brembel/brem(m)bil n bramble W7/CDC
  brimme/brymme n brim, brink, water's edge W7/MEV
  broom n broom W7
English: berm n narrow shelf/ledge/path AHD/W7
  bramble n prickly shrubs AHD/W7
  brim n rim/edge of cup/bowl/depression AHD/W7
  broom n leguminous shrub AHD/W7
Middle Dutch: berme n berm CDC
  br(a)eme n bramble CDC
Dutch: berm n berm, ground alongside dike W7
  braam n.masc bramble ASD
  braam-bēzie n.fem blackberry ASD
  brem n.fem broom ASD
Middle Low German: berme n berm CDC
Low German: braam n broom, bramble CDC
  brummel n bramble CDC
Old High German: brāmo/brāma n.masc bramble W7/ASD/CDC
Middle High German: brāme n bramble CDC
  brem n brim W7
German: Berme n berm CDC
  Bram n.masc broom CDC
  Bräme n.fem edge, border; hedge, bramble LRC
  Brombeere n.fem blackberry ASD
Swiss German: Bramen n bramble CDC
Icelandic: barmr n brim, edge, border of sea/river CDC
Old Danish: bremble/brymle n bramble CDC
Danish: brambær n.neut blackberry ASD
Swedish: brombär n.masc blackberry ASD
Middle French: brimme n.fem brim W7
French: berme n.fem berm W7/R1
Russian: berma n berm CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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