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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. bheug-, bheugh-   'to bow, flex, bend, crook'

Semantic Field: to Bend


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bocc adj soft W7
Irish: bog adj soft, moist, tender CDC
  bogach n bog, moor, morass CDC
Scots Gaelic: bog adj soft, moist, tender CDC
  bogan n bog, morass, quagmire CDC
Old English: bē(a)g/bē(a)h/bǣh n.masc bee, crown, garland, collar, bracelet W7/ASD
  bōg n bough W7
  boga n.masc bow: arch W7/ASD
  būgan, bēah, bugon, bogen vb to bow: submit W7/ASD
  būhsum adj buxom W7
  bȳgan/bīg(e)an/bēgan vb.wk.trans to bow: bend, flex, curve CDC
  byht n.masc bight W7/ASD
  forbūgan, forbēah, forbugon, forbogen vb.str.II to flee from LRC
  regn-boga n.masc rainbow ASD
  stān-boga n.masc arch, bridge, lit. stone-bow ASD
Middle English: beghe/byghe/by(e)/bie/beh n bee W7/MEV/CDC
  beyen/beien vb to bow: bend, flex, curve OED
  bight/bycht/byzt n bight W7/CDC
  bogge n bog CDC
  boghe/boze n bow: submission CDC
  bowe n bow: arch W7
  bowen vb to bow W7
  buxsum adj buxom W7
English: akimbo adj/adv with hand on hip and elbow turned outward AHD/W7
  bagel n hard doughnut-shaped roll AHD/W7
  bee n.obs metal ring/torque OED
  bight n bend, angle, corner AHD/W7
  bog n marsh, wet spongy ground AHD/W7
  bow n arch, bend, something bent/curved AHD/W7
  bow n submission, bending of head/body W7
  bow vb to yield, defer, submit AHD/W7
  bow vb to flex, bend into curve AHD/W7
  buxom adj yielding, tractable, obedient AHD/W7
  rainbow n rain/mist/spray reflecting/refracting sun's rays in colored arc TLL
  Stonebows a.k.a. Brandywine Bridge in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: boga n.masc bow: arch ASD
Frisian: boage n bow: arch ASD
Middle Dutch: būghen vb to bow: submit OED
Dutch: bocht n bight CDC
  bogt n.fem bight ASD
  boog n.masc bow: arch ASD
  buigen vb to bow: submit OED
  regenboog n rainbow TLL
Old Saxon: bāg n bee CDC
  bōg n.masc bee ASD
  bogo n.masc bow: arch ASD
  *būgan vb to bow: submit CDC/OED
Middle Low German: boge n bow: arch CDC
  būgen vb to bow: submit OED
Old High German: biogan vb to bow: submit W7/OED
  bogo n.masc bow: arch ASD
  boug/bouc n bee W7/CDC
  pouc n.masc bee ASD
Middle High German: biegen vb to bow: bend, flex, curve OED
  boge n.masc bow: arch ASD
  bouc n.masc bee ASD
  *böugel n.dim little ring AHD
German: beugen vb to bow: submit LRC
  biegen vb to bow: bend, flex, curve LRC
  Boge(n) n.masc bow: arch ASD
  Bucht n.fem bight ASD
  Bügel n hoop, handle LRC
  Regenbogen n rainbow TLL
Yiddish: beygel n bagel W7
Old Norse: baugr n.masc bee ASD
  *bjúga vb to bow: submit OED
  bōgr n bow: arch W7
Icelandic: baugr n bee CDC
  bogi n.masc bow: arch ASD
  buga vb.wk to bow: submit CDC
  bygð n.fem bight ASD
  stein-bogi n stone arch ASD
Danish: bue n bow: arch ASD
  bugt n.masc/fem bight ASD
  regnbue n rainbow TLL
Old Swedish: boghi n bow: arch CDC
Swedish: buga vb.wk to bow: submit CDC
  bugt n.masc bight ASD
  båge n.masc bow: arch ASD
  regnbåge n rainbow TLL
Gothic: biugan vb to bow: submit OED
  bugjan vb.wk.I to buy LRC
Crimean Gothic: boga n bow: arch CGo
Sanskrit: bhujati vb to bend W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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