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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. bhlē̆i- : bhləi- : bhlī-   'to shine, glitter'

Semantic Field: to Shine, Glisten

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: blāc adj bright, white RPN
  blēo n.str form, hue, color, visage GED/RPN
  blīcan vb to shine, glitter RPN
  blis(s)/blys(s) n.str.fem bliss GED/ASD
  blīþe adj blithe GED
  blīþian vb.wk to rejoice GED
  blīþs/blīds n.str.fem bliss GED/ASD
Middle English: ble(o) n hue, radiance, complexion MEV
  blis(se)/blys(se) n bliss W7/MEV
  blith(e)/bliþe/blyþe/blythe adj blithe W7/MEV/CDC
English: bliss n joy, gladness, happiness GED
  blithe adj glad, happy, pleasant, lighthearted GED
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: *blīde/blīd- adj blithe CDC/GED
  bli(e) n.str color GED
  blika vb to shine, glitter ASD
Frisian: blike vb to shine, appear ASD
North Frisian: blid adj kind, merciful CDC
Dutch: blij(de) adj kind, merciful CDC
Old Saxon: blī n lead (metal) KSW
  blī n.str color GED
  blīdōn/blīthōn vb.wk to rejoice GED
  blīdsea/blīzza/blītzea n.fem bliss GED/CDC
  blīdsean vb.wk to delight GED
  blikan vb to shine, glitter ASD
  blīthi adj blithe GED
Old High German: arblichan vb to blanch, shine by exposure ASD
  blīden vb.wk to rejoice GED
  blīdi adj blithe GED
  blīo n lead (metal) KDW
  blīzzen vb.wk to delight GED
Middle High German: blichen vb to shine, glitter ASD
  blīde adj kind, merciful CDC
German: Blei n.neut lead (metal) TLL
  bleich adj pale, faint; sheer LRC
  Bleistift n.masc lead pencil LRC
  erbleichen vb to blanch, shine by exposure ASD
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: blik(j)a vb to shine, glitter ASD
  blý n lead (metal) KNW
Old Icelandic: blīðr adj mild, pleasant (of weather) GED
Icelandic: blīdhr adj kind, merciful CDC
Danish: blid adj kind, merciful CDC
  bly n lead (metal) TLL
Swedish: blid adj kind, merciful CDC
  bly n lead (metal) TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: bleiþs adj kind, merciful GED
Baltic  
Lithuanian: blizgú vb to shine ASD
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: blědъ adj light green, yellow RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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