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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bhrūg-   'fruit; to brook, enjoy'

Semantic Fields: Fruit; to Please; Glad, Joyful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: brūcan vb to brook W7
Middle English: br(o)uken vb to brook W7/OED
  fruicioun n fruition W7
  fruit n fruit W7
  frumenty n frumenty W7
English: brook vb to use, enjoy; endure, tolerate AHD/W7/OED
  fructify vb to bear fruit, make fruitful AHD/W7
  frugal adj thrifty in resource expenditure AHD/W7
  frugivorous adj feeding on fruit AHD/W7
  fruit n product of plant growth AHD/W7
  fruition n enjoyment, pleasurable use/possession AHD/W7
  frumentaceous adj made of/resembling grain (e.g. wheat) AHD/W7
  frumenty n wheat dish boiled in milk flavored with sugar/spices/raisins AHD/W7
  infructescence n fruiting stage of inflorescence AHD
Old Frisian: bruka vb to brook ASD
Frisian: bruke vb to brook ASD
Dutch: gebruiken vb to brook ASD
  vrucht n fruit TLL
Old Saxon: brūkan vb to brook ASD
Old High German: brūchan vb to brook ASD
Middle High German: brūchen vb to brook ASD
German: brauchen vb to brook ASD
  Frucht n.fem fruit LRC
Icelandic: brūka vb to brook ASD
Danish: bruge vb to brook ASD
  frugt n fruit TLL
Swedish: brūka vb to brook ASD
  frukt n fruit TLL
Gothic: brukyan vb to brook ASD
Latin: fructus, fructūs n.masc fruit, use, revenue W7
  frugalis adj frugal, virtuous W7
  frumentum n.neut grain W7
  fruor, frui, fructus/fruitus vb.dep to enjoy, benefit W7
  frux, frugis n.fem fruit, produce LRC
Late Latin: fruitio n.fem enjoyment W7
  frumentaceus adj of grain W7
Old French: fruit n.masc fruit W7
Middle French: frugal adj frugal, inexpensive W7
  fruition n.fem fruition, benefit W7
  frument n.masc grain W7
  frumentee n.fem frumenty W7
Gheg: pāfrujt adj barren, without fruit LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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