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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bhudh-m(e)n   'base, ground, bottom, fundament'

Semantic Fields: Ground, Soil; Bottom

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Irish: bonn n.masc bottom ASD
Gaelic: bonn/buinn n.masc bottom ASD
English  
Old English: botm n.masc bottom W7/ASD
Middle English: abissus n abyss W7
  boþem/botme n bottom MEV/W7
  fond n fond W7
  fonne n dupe, fool, buffoon W7
  founden vb to found W7
  foundren vb to collapse, send to the bottom W7
  fundament n fundament W7
  profound adj profound W7
English: abyss n bottomless pit/gulf/chaos of old cosmogonies AHD/W7
  bottom n underside, lower surface AHD/W7
  bumboat n boat bringing provisions/commodities for sale to (those in) ship AHD/W7
  fond adj silly, foolish AHD/W7
  found vb.trans to take first step(s) in construction AHD/W7
  founder vb to become disabled AHD/W7
  fund n supply, available resources AHD/W7
  fundament n base upon which structure is erected AHD/W7
  fundus n part below aperture of hollow organ AHD/W7
  latifundium n great landed estate, often with servile labor AHD/W7
  profound adj having intellectual depth/insight AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: boden n.masc bottom ASD
Frisian: boyem n bottom ASD
Dutch: bōdem n.masc bottom ASD
Old Saxon: bodom n.masc bottom ASD
Low German: bum n tree W7
  bumboot n.neut bumboat W7
Old High German: bodam n.masc bottom W7/ASD
Middle High German: bodem/boden n.masc bottom ASD
German: Bodem/Boden n.masc bottom ASD
  Fundament n.neut fundament LRC
N-Germanic  
Icelandic: botn n.masc bottom ASD
Danish: bund n bottom ASD
Swedish: botten n.masc bottom ASD
Italic  
Latin: fundamentum n.neut foundation W7
  fundo, fundare vb to found, lay foundation of W7
  fundus, fundī n.masc bottom, land, farm W7
  latifundium n.neut large property W7
  latus, lateris n.neut side W7
  profundus adj deep W7
Late Latin: abyssus n.masc abyss W7
New Latin: fundus n.masc bottom, land, bottom of an organ W7
Old French: fondement n.masc base W7
  fonder vb to found W7
Middle French: fondrer vb to collapse W7
  profond adj deep W7
Hellenic  
Greek: abyssos n.masc abyss, bottomless well W7
  bathys adj deep W7
  byssos n.masc depth W7
  pythmēn n.masc bottom W7
Indic  
Sanskrit: budhna n.masc bottom ASD

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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