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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: : də-, and dāi- : dəi-, dī̆-   'to share, divide'

Semantic Field: to Divide

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: bidǣlan/bedǣlan, bidǣlde, bidǣled vb.wk.I to deprive, release ASD
  dāl n.neut dole, division W7/ASD
  ordāl n ordeal W7
  tīd n.fem tide LRC
  tīdan vb to tide, occur, happen AHD
  tīdung n tiding W7
  tīma n time, date W7
  top n top, tuft/ball at high end CDC
Middle English: condemnen vb to condemn W7
  damage n damage W7
  dampnen vb to damn W7
  demon n demon W7
  dole n dole W7
  firkin n firkin W7
  ordal n ordeal W7
  tappen vb to tap IEW
  tide n time W7
  tiden vb to tide W7
  tiding vb.ptc occurring AHD
  time n time W7
  tippen vb to tip IEW
  top(pe) n top CDC
English: condemn vb.trans to censure, declare wrong AHD/W7
  daimon n demon AHD/W7
  damage n loss/harm resulting from injury AHD/W7
  damn vb to condemn (to punishment), repudiate AHD/W7
  deme n local government unit in ancient Attica AHD/W7
  democracy n government by common people AHD/W7
  democratic adj re: democracy W7
  demography n statistical human population study AHD/W7
  demon n genius, attendant power/spirit AHD/W7
  demos n populace, common people of ancient Greece AHD/W7
  demotic adj popular AHD/W7
  dole n allotted share/portion/destiny AHD/W7
  endemic adj belonging/native to a people/country AHD/W7
  epidemic adj affecting many at once AHD/W7
  eventide n evening AHD/W7
  firkin n small wooden cask/vessel AHD/W7
  geodesy n applied mathematics identifying exact positions/areas of earth's surface AHD/W7
  gotterdammerung n turbulent end of regime/institution AHD
  indemnify vb.trans to secure against loss/damage AHD/W7
  indemnity n security against loss/hurt/damage AHD/W7
  ordeal n primitive means to determine guilt/innocence AHD/W7
  pandemic adj widespread, affecting large fraction of population AHD/W7
  tap n (sound of) light audible blow W7
  tap vb to hit/strike lightly IEW/W7
  ted vb to strew, spread out GED
  tide n time, season, period AHD/W7
  tide vb.intrans to befall, betide AHD/W7
  tiding n piece of news AHD/W7
  time n period/duration when something exists/continues AHD/W7
  tip vb to tap, softly touch/push IEW
  top n peak, crest, summit, highest part CDC
  Weathertop prop.n windy hill in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Yahrzeit prop.n anniversary of relative's death AHD
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: ordēl/urdēl n ordeal ASD
  tīd n.fem tidings ASD
  top n.masc top, tuft, lock CDC/ASD
Middle Dutch: getes adj fitting, accommodating GED
  onget(h)es adj restless GED
  tiden vb to go, come W7
  veerdel n quarter, lit. fourth-part W7
Dutch: tijding n.fem tidings ASD
  top n.fem top ASD
Old Saxon: tīd n.fem tide, time, hour ASD
  urdeili n ordeal ASD
Low German: tippen vb to tip W7
Old High German: irteilen vb to judge, distribute W7
  teil n part W7
  teilen vb to divide; render verdict W7
  urteil(a) n ordeal, judgment W7/ASD
  zetten vb to ted GED
  zīt n.fem time, hour, age W7/ASD
  zopf(e) n.masc top, tuft/lock of hair CDC/ASD
Middle High German: jārzīt n.fem anniversary AHD
  tāpe n tap, (blow dealt with) paw W7
  zīt n.fem time AHD
  zītunge n.fem tidings ASD
German: Dämon n.masc demon LRC
  Demokratie n.fem democracy LRC
  Götterdämmerung n.fem gotterdammerung, twilight of the gods AHD
  Jahrzeit n.fem anniversary AHD
  Teil n.masc part LRC
  teilen vb to divide LRC
  Urteil n.neut judgment LRC
  urteilen vb to judge LRC
  Viertel n.masc quarter LRC
  Zeit n.fem time LRC
  Zopf n.masc tuft/lock of hair LRC
Yiddish: Yahrzeit prop.n.fem Yahrzeit, anniversary AHD
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: deila, deilad vb to divide; quarrel, contend LRC
  deili n.neut.pl details LRC
  tíð n.masc time LRC
  tīmi n time W7
  toppr n top; mop/tuft/lock of hair IEW
Old Icelandic: tað n.neut manure (spread out) GED
  teðja vb.wk to ted (manure) GED
Icelandic: tíð n.fem tide, time, hour ASD
  tíðindi n.fem tidings, event ASD
  tími n.masc time, hour ASD
  toppr n.masc top, tuft, lock ASD
Danish: tidende n.fem tidings ASD
  top n.masc top, tuft, crest, summit CDC/ASD
Swedish: topp n.masc top, summit CDC/ASD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: dáils n.str.fem share, portion LRC
  -tassaba adv.sfx in idleness GED
  *ungatass adj idle, undisciplined GED
Italic  
Latin: condemno, condemnāre vb to condemn W7
  daemon n.masc daimon, divinity W7
  damno, damnāre vb to damage, condemn W7
  damnum n.neut damage, loss, fine W7
  indemnis adj unharmed W7
Late Latin: daemon n.masc demon, evil spirit W7
  democratia n.fem democracy W7
  pandemus adj pandemic, re: all the people W7
Old French: condemner vb to condemn W7
  dam n.masc damage W7
  damage n.masc damage W7
  dampner vb to doom, damage W7
  toupet n.dim (little) top, tuft of hair CDC
Middle French: democratie n.fem democracy W7
  epidemie n.fem epidemy, disease spreading among the people W7
  taper vb to tap, strike with flat hand W7
French: démographie n.fem demography W7
  endémie n.fem state of what never stops among the people W7
  endémique adj never stopping among the people W7
  épidémique adj epidemic, spreading among populace W7
Italian: toppo n end CDC
Albanian  
Albanian: demokraci n.fem democracy LRC
  demokratik adj democratic LRC
Hellenic  
Greek: geōdaisia n.fem geodesy W7
  daiesthai vb to divide W7
  δαΐζω vb to slay, rend, cleave asunder RPN
  daimōn n.masc daimon, divinity W7
  δαίομαι vb to distribute GED
  δαίω vb to divide RPN
  δάσμα n portion GED
  δατέομαι vb to distribute GED
  dēmokratia n.fem democracy W7
  dēmos n.masc people W7
  δημοσίᾳ adv in public LRC
  dēmotēs n.masc commoner W7
  δημοτικός adj in common use, re: the people LRC
  endēmia n.fem action of dwelling among the people W7
  endēmos adj endemic, among the people W7
  epidēmia n.fem visit, epidemic W7
  epidēmos adj visiting, epidemic W7
  pandēmos adj pandemic, re: all the people W7
Indic  
Sanskrit: dáyati vb to divide, destroy RPN
  dā́ti vb to cut, reap, divide, distribute GED/RPN
  dyáti vb to cut, reap, divide RPN
Tocharian  
Tocharian A: tät-k vb to cut up, separate GED

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
dim=diminutive
fem=feminine (gender)
intrans=intransitive
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
prop=proper
ptc=participle
sfx=suffix
str=strong (inflection)
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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