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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: deik̑-   'to teach, show'

Semantic Field: to Show


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: disc n.masc dish, plate, bowl; discus W7/ASD
   n toe W7
  tāc(e)n n sign, token W7
  tǣcan vb.wk to teach, show W7/ASD
  tēon vb to accuse W7
Middle English: abaten vb to abate W7
  avengen vb to avenge W7
  benediccioun n benediction W7
  bitokenen vb to betoken, signify AHD
  condicion n condition W7
  dedicate vb to dedicate W7
  digit n digit W7
  dish n dish W7
  ditee n ditty W7
  enditen vb to indite W7
  entredit n interdict W7
  indiccioun n indiction W7
  inditen vb to indict W7
  judicial adj judicial W7
  jug(g)e n judge W7
  jug(g)en vb to judge W7
  jurisdicciuon n jurisdiction W7
  malison n malison W7
  prechen vb to preach W7
  predicament n predicament W7
  prejudice n prejudice W7
  revengen vb to revenge W7
  techen vb to teach W7
  tokne n token W7
  vengen vb to avenge W7
  verdit(e) n verdict W7
English: abdicate vb to reject, renounce, relinquish (sovereign power) formally AHD/W7
  addict vb.trans to devote/surrender (self) to something obsessively/habitually AHD/W7
  apodictic adj re: necessary truth/absolute certainty AHD/W7
  avenge vb.trans to take revenge for/on behalf of AHD/W7
  benediction n invocation of blessing AHD/W7
  betoken vb.trans to show, give evidence of AHD/W7
  condition n stipulation, premise on which fulfillment of agreement depends AHD/W7
  contradict vb.trans to resist/oppose in argument AHD/W7
  dedicate adj dedicated AHD/W7
  deictic adj showing/pointing out directly AHD/W7
  deixis n function of word: specifying referent in context AHD
  dicast n ancient Athenian performing as both judge and jury AHD/W7
  dictate vb to prescribe, speak authoritatively AHD/W7
  diction n verbal description AHD/W7
  dictum n authoritative pronouncement AHD/W7
  dictyosome n plant cell Golgi apparatus AHD
  digit n arabic numeral: 0-9 AHD/W7
  discus n disk thrown for distance W7
  dish n vessel containing food for consumption CDC
  disk n flat circular stone/metal plate AHD/W7
  ditto n thing mentioned above/previously AHD/W7
  ditty n song/short poem to be sung AHD/W7
  edict n official public proclamation having force of law AHD/W7
  fatidic adj re: prophecy AHD/W7
  Heathertoes prop.n Bree surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  index n guide for facilitating book reference AHD/W7
  indicate vb.trans to point out/to with exactness AHD/W7
  indict vb.trans to accuse, charge with offense AHD/W7
  indiction n 15-year cycle: ancient/medieval chronological unit AHD/W7
  indite vb.trans to compose, make up AHD/W7
  interdict n Roman Catholic ecclesiastical censure AHD/W7
  judge n one who judges AHD/W7
  judge vb to form authoritative opinion AHD/W7
  judicial adj re: judgment/judiciary/administration of justice AHD/W7
  juridical adj re: office of judge/administration of justice AHD/W7
  jurisdiction n right/power/authority to apply/interpret law AHD/W7
  maledict adj.arch accursed AHD/W7
  malison n curse, malediction AHD/W7
  paradigm n pattern, example AHD/W7
  preach vb to deliver a sermon AHD/W7
  predicament n status/character/classification assigned by predication AHD/W7
  predicate n something affirmed/denied of subject in logical proposition AHD/W7
  predicate vb.trans to declare, affirm AHD/W7
  predict vb.trans to foretell/declare in advance AHD/W7
  prejudice n damage/injury resulting from judgment/action of another AHD/W7
  revenge n damage/injury inflicted in return AHD/W7
  revenge vb.trans to inflict damage/injury in return AHD/W7
  syndic n municipal magistrate AHD/W7
  tachisme n art with haphazardly-applied irregular dabs/splotches of color AHD
  teach, taught vb to show, instruct, cause to know AHD/W7
  tetchy adj testy, peevish AHD
  theodicy n defense of God's goodness/omnipotence in view of existence of evil AHD/W7
  toe n terminal digit on vertebrate's foot AHD/W7
  token n outward sign AHD/W7
  valediction n farewell, act/utterance of leave-taking AHD/W7
  vendetta n blood feud AHD/W7
  verdict n finding/decision of jury AHD/W7
  veridical adj veracious, truthful AHD/W7
  vindicate vb.trans to avenge, deliver, set free AHD/W7
Dutch: teen n toe TLL
Old High German: tisc n dish, plate, table KDW/W7
  zēha n toe W7
  zeihhan n sign W7
German: diktieren vb to dictate LRC
  Tisch n table TLL
  Zehe n.fem toe LRC
  Zeichen n.neut sign LRC
Icelandic:  n toe ASD
Danish: taa n toe TLL
Swedish:  n toe TLL
Gothic: gateihan vb.str.I to tell LRC
  táikns n.str.fem sign, wonder LRC
Latin: abdicō, abdicāre, abdicāvī, abdicātus vb to abdicate, disavow, give up W7
  addico, addicere, addixi, addictus vb to award, favor W7
  apodicticus adj speech that demonstrates W7
  benedico, benedicere vb to speak well of W7
  condicio, condicionis n.fem terms of agreement, condition W7
  condico, condicere vb to agree W7
  contradico, contradicere, contradixi, contradictus vb to contradict W7
  dēdicō, dēdicāre, dēdicāvī, dēdicātus vb to dedicate W7
  dicō, dicāre vb to proclaim, dedicate, consecrate W7
  dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictum vb to say, state, declare LRC
  dictio, dictionis n.fem speaking, style, oratory W7
  dicto, dictare, dictavi, dictatus vb to dictate, say often W7
  dictum n.neut something said W7
  digitus n.masc finger W7
  discus n.masc dish, discus W7
  edico, edicere, edixi, edictus vb to decree W7
  edictum n.neut edict W7
  fatidicus adj annoucing fate, prophetic W7
  index, indicis n.masc indicator W7
  indicō, indicāre, indicāvī, indicātum vb to indicate, betray LRC
  indīco, indīcere, indīxī, indictus vb to announce, proclaim W7
  indictio n.fem proclamation W7
  interdīcō, interdīcere, interdīxi, interdictum vb to forbid, prohibit LRC
  interdictum n.neut prohibition, praetorian interdict W7
  jūdex, jūdicis n.masc judge W7
  judicialis adj relating to courts of law W7
  judicium n.neut judgment W7
  jūdicō, jūdicāre vb to judge W7
  juridicus adj relating to courts of law W7
  jurisdictio, jurisdictionis n.fem administration of justice W7
  praejudicium n.neut previous judgment, damage W7
  valedico, valedicere, valedixi, valedictus vb to say farewell W7
  veridicus adj truthful W7
  vindex, vindicis n.masc claimant, avenger W7
  vindicō, vindicāre, vindicāvī, vindicātus vb to vindicate, lay claim to W7
  vindicta n.fem revenge, vindication W7
Vulgar Latin: indicto, indictare vb to proclaim W7
Late Latin: benedico, benedicere, benedixi, benedictus vb to bless W7
  benedictio, benedictionis n.fem blessing, benediction W7
  indictio, indictionis n.fem indiction W7
  maldictus adj with a spell cast upon W7
  maledictio, maledictionis n.fem malediction, spell W7
  paradigma n.neut model, paradigm W7
  praedicamentum n.neut predicament W7
  praedicatum n.neut what was predicated W7
  praedicō, praedicāre, praedicāvī, praedicātus vb to preach, assert, predicate logically W7
  syndicus n.masc representative of a corporation W7
Medieval Latin: apodixa n.fem receipt W7
Spanish: dicho adj/n said; saying, remark TLL
Old French: avengier vb to avenge CDC
  benedicion n benediction AHD
  ditié n.fem poem W7
  ditier vb to compose W7
  enditer vb to write down, proclaim W7
  entredit n.masc interdiction W7
  jugier vb to judge W7
  juridiction n.fem jurisdiction W7
  maleïçon n.fem malediction W7
  prechier vb to preach W7
  prejudice n.masc previous judgment, damage W7
  revengier vb to avenge W7
  vengier vb to avenge W7
Anglo-French: enditer vb to write down W7
  verdit n.masc verdict, saying W7
Middle French: condicion n.fem condition W7
  juge n.masc judge W7
  revenche, revenge n.fem revenge W7
  revenchier, revengier vb to revenge W7
French: syndic n.masc union W7
  théodicée n.fem theodicy W7
Italian: detto adj/n said; saying TLL
  dire vb to say W7
  vendetta n.fem vengeance W7
Greek: ἀδικέω vb to wrong LRC
  ἀδικία n.fem wrong-doing LRC
  ἀποδείκνυμι vb to propose, demonstrate LRC
  apodeiktikos adj speech that demonstrates W7
  apodeixis n.fem proof, demonstration W7
  ἀπόδεξις n.fem exposition, publication LRC
  δείκνυμι vb to show LRC
  deiktikos adj deictic W7
  deiktos adj verbal W7
  dikazein vb to judge W7
  δίκαιος adj just, righteous LRC
  δικαιοσύνη n.fem justice, righteousness LRC
  δικαιόω vb to justify LRC
  dikastēs n.masc a judge W7
  δίκη n.fem custom, right, judgement LRC
  paradeigma n.neut paradigm, model W7
  paradeiknynai vb to show side by side W7
  syndikos n.masc assistant at law, advocate, representative of a state W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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