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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: demə-, domə-, domə-   'to tame'

Semantic Field: Animal


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: damnain vb to tie up LRC
Middle Irish: damnaim vb to tame GED
Gaulish: dāma/damma n deer GED
Old English:  n.fem (female) deer GED
  tam adj tame GED
  temmian vb.wk to tame GED
Middle English: adamant n adamant W7
  daunten vb to daunt W7
  diamaunde n diamond W7
  tame adj tame W7
English: adamant n stone believed to be impenetrably hard AHD/W7
  daunt vb.trans to intimidate, lessen courage AHD/W7
  diamond n crystalline carbon: hardest known substance AHD/W7
  doe n (female) deer GED
  indomitable adj unconquerable, incapable of being subdued AHD/W7
  tame adj domesticated, reduced from native state of wildness AHD/W7
  tame vb to subdue, train for the household GED
Old Frisian: tam adj tame GED
  tema vb.wk to tame GED
Middle Low German: tam adj tame GED
  temmen vb.wk to tame GED
Old High German: zam adj tame GED
  zemman/zamōn vb.wk to tame GED
  zemmen vb to tame LRC
German: Diamant n.masc diamond LRC
  zahm adj tame LRC
  zähmen vb to tame LRC
Old Icelandic: tamr adj tame GED
  temja vb.wk to tame GED
Icelandic: temja vb to tame ASD
Danish: daa n doe ASD
Gothic: ga-tamjan vb.wk.I to tame GED
Latin: adamas, adamantis n.masc hardest metal, diamond W7
  domitō, domitāre, domitāvī, domitātus vb.freq to tame, break in W7
  domō, domāre, domuī, domitus vb to tame, tie up, domesticate GED
Late Latin: diamas, diamantis n.masc diamond W7
  indomitabilis adj indomitable W7
Old French: adamant n.masc hardest metal, diamond W7
  danter/donter vb to tame W7
Middle French: diamant n.masc diamond W7
Homeric Greek: δαμνάω vb to tame LRC
  δάμνημι vb to tame GED
Greek: δαμάλης n young steer GED
  δάμαλις n heifer GED
  *δᾰμάω vb to tame GED
  δμώς n slave GED
Hittite: damas- vb to push, press GED
New Persian: dām n tamed animal GED
Ossetic: domun vb to tame LRC
Sanskrit: damáyati vb to subdue GED
  dámas n act of taming GED
  dāmyáti vb to tame, tie up GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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