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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. der-, heavy-base derə-, drē-   'to cut, skin, split, tear'

Semantic Fields: to Cut; Skin, Hide; to Split


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: drenn n quarrel GED
Cornish: darn n piece, portion, fragment GED
Welsh: darn n piece, portion, fragment GED/RPN
Old English: taru n tear, rent RPN
  teart adj sharp, severe W7
  teran, tær, tǣron, toren vb.str.IV to tear (apart), lacerate GED/RPN/ASD
  torn n.str.masc anger GED
Middle English: tart adj tart W7
  teren vb to tear W7
  terren vb to quarrel GED
  teter n tetter W7
English: dahl n pigeon pea; stewed lentils/legumes AHD
  -derm n.sfx skin, covering AHD/W7
  -derma n.sfx skin (ailment) AHD/W7
  dermato- pfx re: skin AHD
  derris n tropical leguminous Old World shrub/vine AHD/W7
  dhurrie n flat-woven cotton rug AHD
  epidermis n outer, epithelial layer of skin AHD/W7
  phelloderm n tissue produced inwardly by cork cambium AHD
  tare n weed IEW
  tart adj pungent, agreeably sharp to taste AHD/W7
  tear, tore, torn vb.str to rend, separate/pull apart by force AHD/W7
  tetter n vesicular skin disease (e.g. herpes, ringworm, eczema) AHD/W7
  turd n.vulg dung, feces, piece of excrement AHD
Old Frisian: tera vb.str.IV to tear apart GED
  tornig adj angry GED
Dutch: tarwe n wheat TLL
  toorn n.neut anger ASD
  torn n division GED
  tornen vb to undo; depart GED
Old Saxon: farterian vb.wk to devour GED
  terian vb.str.IV to tear (apart) GED/RPN
  torn n.neut grief, affliction ASD
  torn n.str.masc anger GED
Middle Low German: terren vb to quarrel GED
Low German: terren vb to excite GED
Old High German: firzeran vb.str.IV to tear apart GED
  zeran vb.str.IV to rend, tear (apart), destroy GED/RPN
  zerren vb.wk to tear GED
  zorn n.str.masc grief, anger, jealousy, excitement GED
Middle High German: traz n spite W7
  verzern vb.wk to devour GED
  zornig adj angry GED
German: Trotz n.masc defiance LRC
  trotz prep in spite of TLL
  verzehren vb to devour LRC
  Zorn n.masc grief, anger LRC
  zornig adj angry LRC
Old Norse: trauðr adj unwilling, reluctant LRC
Old Icelandic: trefill n rag, tatter RPN
  trefr n fringe(s) RPN
  tröf n fringe(s) RPN
Danish: trods prep in spite of TLL
Swedish: trots prep in spite of TLL
Gothic: *af-taurnan vb.wk.IV to tear off GED/RPN
  *dis-tairan vb.str.IV to rend, tear apart GED
  *dis-taurnan vb.wk.IV to tear apart GED/RPN
  *ga-tairan vb.str.IV to break, destroy, tear down/apart GED
  *ga-tarnjan vb.wk.I to rob, take away GED/RPN
  *ga-taurnan vb.wk.IV to tear, cease, vanish, be destroyed GED
  *ga-taurþs n.fem destruction GED
  *tarmjan vb.wk.I to break forth GED
Late Latin: epidermis n.fem epidermis W7
New Latin: -derma sfx skin W7
French: -derme sfx skin W7
Lithuanian: diriù, derù, dìrti vb to flay RPN
  dir̃ti vb to tear, flay GED
Latvian: dur̃ns adj confused GED
Old Church Slavonic: derǫ, dьrǫ, dьrati vb to flay, tear apart GED/RPN
Russian: dertь n cleared land GED
  drápat', drapát' vb.dial to scrape, scratch RPN
Albanian: drapër n sickle RPN
Greek: δέρμα n.neut skin GED
  derris n.fem skin W7
  δέρω vb to skin, flay GED
  δορός n leather bag GED
  δρέπανον n scythe RPN
  δρέπω vb to cull, pluck RPN
  epidermis n.fem skin W7
Hittite: tarna- vb to leave GED
Armenian: teṙem vb to flay GED/RPN
Avestan: dərətō vb to split GED
Sanskrit: dárt vb to burst GED
  dīrṇás adj split, confused GED
  dŕ̥ṭiṣ n leather bag GED
  dr̥ṇā́ti vb to rend, tear, split, (cause to) burst GED/RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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