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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: deuk-   'to tug, pull, drag, tow'

Semantic Field: to Draw, Pull


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Breton: duc vb to bear (away), carry (off) GED
Cornish: dog vb to bring, carry GED
Middle Welsh: dwc vb to bring, carry GED
Old English: here-toga/here-toha n.str.masc duke GED/ASD
  tǣman/tīeman vb to teem W7
  tēag n tie, rope GED
  tēam n.masc team, offspring W7/ASD
  tēam n.str.masc rein, bridle GED
  tēon, téah, tugon, togen vb to draw, pull, train W7/GED
  tīegan vb to tie GED
  togian/togjan vb to tug, tow, pull W7/GED
  tyge n pulling GED
  tygel n strap GED
  tyht n.masc conduct, breeding, upbringing GED
Middle English: conducen vb to conduct W7
  conduit n conduit W7
  ducat n ducat W7
  duche n duchy W7
  duchesse n duchess W7
  duke n duke W7
  educaten vb to rear W7
  inducen vb to induce W7
  producen vb to produce W7
  reducen vb to lead back W7
  teg/tye n tie W7
  teme n theme W7
  temen vb to teem W7
  toggen vb to tug GED
  tought adj taut W7
  towen vb to tow W7
  tuggen vb to tug W7
  wanton n wanton W7
English: abducens n cranial nerves conveying motor impulses AHD
  abducent adj abducting (e.g. muscle) AHD/W7
  abduct vb.trans to carry off (e.g. someone) by force AHD/W7
  adduce vb.trans to offer as proof/reason/example in discussion/analysis AHD/W7
  aqueduct n water conduit AHD/W7
  circumduction n leading about; movement of leg/arm in arc/circle AHD/CDC
  condottiere n leader of European mercenary band AHD/W7
  conduce vb.intrans to contribute, lead/tend to desirable result AHD/W7
  conduct n guide, escort AHD/W7
  deduce vb.trans to trace course of AHD/W7
  deduct vb.trans to subtract, take away (amount from total) AHD/W7
  doge n chief magistrate in Venice/Genoa AHD/W7
  douche n water jet/current directed against/into body part/cavity AHD/W7
  ducal adj re: duke(dom) AHD/W7
  ducat n European gold coin AHD/W7
  duce n leader AHD/W7
  duchess n wife of duke/woman holding ducal title AHD/W7
  duchy n dukedom, territory of duke/duchess AHD/W7
  duct n body tube/vessel, esp. carrying gland secretion AHD/W7
  ductile adj capable of being reshaped AHD/W7
  duke n sovereign ruler of European duchy AHD/W7
  educate vb.trans to provide schooling for AHD/W7
  educe vb.trans to bring out (e.g. something latent) AHD/W7
  induce vb.trans to lead/move by persuasion/influence AHD/W7
  introduce vb.trans to lead/bring in, esp. for first time AHD/W7
  produce vb to exhibit, offer for view/notice AHD/W7
  redoubt n small enclosed temporary defensive work AHD/W7
  reduce vb to consolidate, draw together/cause to converge AHD/W7
  seduce vb to persuade to disobey AHD/W7
  seduction n seducing to wrong AHD/W7
  subduction n forcing one below another AHD
  subdue vb to conquer, vanquish, subjugate AHD
  taut adj tightly drawn, not slack AHD/W7
  team n race, lineage AHD/W7
  tee vb to place (golf ball) for hitting/clubbing GED
  teem vb to produce/bring forth/give birth AHD/W7
  tie n line/ribbon/cord used to close/fasten/unite something AHD/W7
  tow vb.trans to haul, draw/pull behind AHD/W7
  traduce vb.trans to defame, disgrace, lower reputation of AHD/W7
  transducer n device, powered by system 1, supplying different power to system 2 AHD/W7
  tug vb to pull hard AHD/W7
  viaduct n bridge (on series of narrow arches) AHD/W7
  wanton adj unruly, undisciplined AHD/W7
  Zugunruhe prop.n migratory drive in animals AHD
  zugzwang n game situation where undesirable/disadvantageous move is forced AHD
Old Frisian: tām n.masc team, family, progeny, descendants ASD
  tām n.str.masc rein, bridle GED
  tiā vb to tow GED
Old Frankish: tiā vb to tow ASD
  toga vb to tug, pull about, treat roughly ASD
Middle Dutch: toom n.str.masc rein, bridle GED
Dutch: toom n.masc line ASD
Old Saxon: heri-toga/heri-togo n.str.masc duke GED/ASD
  tiohan vb to tow GED
Old Low German: tōm n.masc rein, bridle, harness ASD
Old High German: gi-ziug n.str.neut stuff, things, provisions GED
  gi-ziugōn vb to state one's case GED
  heri-zogo/heri-zoho n.str.masc duke GED/ASD
  ziohan vb to tow GED
  zocchōn/zucken/zucchen vb.wk to tug, snatch, drag off GED/ASD
  zogōn vb.wk to tug GED
  zoum n.str.masc rein, bridle; rope, strap GED
  zug n.str march, draught GED
  zug(i) n.masc movement ASD
  zugil n.masc rein, strap, thong GED
  zuht n.str.fem conduct, breeding, upbringing GED
Middle High German: (ge-)ziuc n.wk.masc witness GED
  ziehen vb to tow GED
  ziuc n.str.neut stuff, things, provisions GED
  ziugen vb.wk to get, produce, provide GED
German: Herzog n.str.masc duke GED
  Zaum n.masc bridle LRC
  Zeug n.str.neut stuff, things, provisions GED
  Zeuge n.wk.masc witness GED
  zeugen vb.wk to get, produce, provide GED
  ziehen vb to tow LRC
  Zucht n.fem breeding LRC
  zucken vb to jerk, twitch LRC
  Zügel n.masc rein LRC
  Zugunruhe n.fem Zugunruhe AHD
  Zugzwang n.masc zugzwang AHD
Old Norse: taug n rope W7
  toga, togað vb to tug LRC
Old Icelandic: taug n.fem rope, tie GED
  taumr n.str.masc rein, bridle GED
  teygja vb.wk to tug GED
  tjōa vb to help GED
  tog n rope, line, cord GED
  toga vb to tug GED
  tygill n strap GED
Icelandic: her-togi n duke, general ASD
  taumr n.masc rein, cord, bridle ASD
  toga vb to tug ASD
  tygill n.masc strap, thong ASD
Gothic: ga-tiuhan vb.str.II to lead, bring LRC
  tiuhan vb.str.II to tow; lead, bring GED
Old Latin: doucō vb to lead GED
Latin: abduco, abducere, abduxi, abductus vb to abduct, lead away, carry off W7
  adduco, adducere vb to adduce, lead to W7
  aquaeductus n.masc aqueduct W7
  conduco, conducere, conduxi, conductus vb to lead, drive, conduct W7
  deduco, deducere, deduxi, deductus vb to deduce, subtract, lead away W7
  dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductum vb to lead, consider GED
  ductilis, ductile adj ductile W7
  ductio, ductionis n.fem act of leading W7
  ductus n.masc duct; act of leading W7
  dux, ducis n.masc duke, leader GED
  ēdūcō, ēdūcāre, ēdūcāvī, ēdūcātus vb to educate, bring up, lit. draw out W7/GED
  indūcō, indūcere vb to induce, lead in W7
  intrōdūcō, intrōdūcere vb to introduce W7
  prōdūcō, prōdūcere vb to produce, lead forward W7
  redūcō, redūcere, redūxī, reductus vb to reduce, restore, lead back W7
  sēdūcō, sēdūcere, sēdūxī, sēductus vb to seduce, lead away W7
  seductio n.fem seduction, lit. leading aside W7
  subdūcō, subdūcere vb to withdraw W7
  trādūcō, trādūcere vb to bring through, lead/carry across W7
  trānsdūcō, trānsdūcere vb to transduce, bring through, lead/carry across W7
Late Latin: ducalis adj ducal, re: leader W7
Medieval Latin: reductus n.masc secret place W7
Old French: aqueduct n aqueduct CDC
  conduit n.masc escort; act of leading W7
  duc n.masc duke W7
Middle French: duc n.masc duke W7
  ducal adj ducal W7
  ducat n.masc coin W7
  duché n.masc duchy W7
  duchesse n.fem duchess W7
  ductile adj ductile W7
  séduction n.fem seduction W7
French: aqueduc n.masc aqueduct CDC
  douche n.fem shower W7
  redoute n.fem redoubt W7
Old Italian: duca n.masc doge W7
  ducato n.masc coin bearing doge's portrait W7
Italian: condottiere n.masc captain, soldier W7/CID
  doccia n.fem spout, water-pipe W7/CID
  docciare vb to shower W7
  doccione n.masc conduit, large water-pipe W7/CID
  Duce prop.n.masc leader [title of Benito Mussolini] W7
  ridotto n.masc resort, retreat W7
Albanian: nduk vb to pluck (hairs) GED
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: δαιδύσσω vb to rub, drag GED
Greek: Δευκαλίων prop.n.masc Deucalion LRC
  στρατηγός n commander, strategist GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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