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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: du̯ō(u)   'two, duo'

Semantic Field: Number

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: da, di, da nbr.card two (2) GED
  dē-riad n pair of horses GED
  diabul adj double GED
Irish:  nbr.card two (2) LRC
Scots Gaelic:  nbr.card two (2) LRC
Manx: daa nbr.card two (2) LRC
Old Welsh: dou nbr.card two (2) EIE
Middle Welsh: dwy-flwydd n.fem biennium GED
English  
Old English: be-twēon(um)/bitweon(um) adv/prep between GED/ASD
  betwīnun/betwȳnum adv/prep between CDC
  be-t(w)ux/betwēox prep betwixt W7/CDC
  betwyxt/betwuzt/betweoks prep betwixt CDC
  ge-twǣfan vb.wk to rob, separate GED
  ge-twin(n) n.masc twin GED/ASD
  tān n twig GED
  twǣgentig/twēntig nbr.card twenty (20), lit. twice-ten GED
  twēgen/twægen, tw(u)ā, tū nbr.card twain, two (2) LRC
  twelf nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two left GED
  twēo n.masc doubt GED
  twēogan vb.wk to doubt GED
  -twēon sfx 'tween W7
  twi- pfx twice, double W7
  twi-fēte adj two-footed GED
  twi-ga adv twice GED
  twiga adv twice W7
  twig(ge) n.neut twig, branch GED
  twilic adj having double thread W7
  twīn n twine W7
  twinn adj twofold, two-by-two W7
  -twist n.sfx rope W7
  twi-wa adv twice GED
  -twux sfx twixt W7
Northumbrian: betweón/betwēn/bitwēn adv/prep between CDC
Middle English: at(w)o adv apart, in two MEV
  atwynne adv in two MEV
  bala(u)nce n balance W7/CDC
  betwen(e)/bitwene/bytwene adv/prep between W7/CDC/MEV
  betwix(t)/bitwixe prep betwixt W7/MEV
  bi- pfx bi- W7
  binarie adj binary AHD
  bytwyzte/betuxt/betuix prep betwixt CDC
  combinen vb to combine W7
  di- pfx di- W7
  double adj double W7
  doublet n doublet W7
  douten vb to doubt W7
  duplicate vb to duplicate W7
  redoutable adj redoubtable W7
  twa nbr.card two (2) W7
  twain adj twain W7
  twelve nbr.card twelve (12) W7
  twenty nbr.card twenty (20) W7
  twi(g)es adv twice W7
  twigge n twig W7
  twin n twine W7
  twisten vb to twist W7
  twix prep twixt W7
  two nbr.card two (2) W7
  twyll n twill W7
English: 'tween prep between LRC
  anadiplosis n repetition of last/prominent word in one phrase/clause at beginning of next AHD/W7
  balance n scale for weighing AHD/W7
  between adv/prep by common action, in common to AHD/W7
  betwixt prep between AHD/W7
  bezel n sloping edge/face on cutting tool AHD/W7
  bi- pfx two, twice, double AHD/W7
  binal adj double, twofold, binary AHD
  binary adj re: two things/parts AHD/W7
  bis adv twice AHD/W7
  bistort n plant with twisted roots AHD/W7
  combine vb to bring closely together AHD/W7
  conduplicate adj folded lengthwise AHD/W7
  deuce n face of die bearing two spots AHD/W7
  di- pfx twice, double, twofold AHD/W7
  di(a)- pfx through, across W7
  diadelphous adj having stamens united in 2 sets by filaments AHD/CDC
  diapir n intrusion of rock core into overburden AHD
  Diaspora prop.n dispersion of Jews among Gentiles AHD/CDC
  dichasium n cymose inflorescence with two main axes AHD/W7
  dicho- pfx in pairs, in 2 parts AHD
  dicrotism n having 2 pulse beats per heartbeat AHD
  didymium n mixture of neodymium/praseodymium AHD/W7
  didymous adj re: twin(s), growing in pairs AHD/W7
  diglossia n language division: prestigious vs. colloquial AHD
  dimer n two identical molecules combined AHD
  diphyodont adj having 2 sets of teeth AHD/CDC
  diplo- pfx double AHD
  diploe n cancellous bony tissue in skull AHD/W7
  diploid adj double, twofold AHD
  diploma n charter, official/state document AHD/W7
  dipteral adj dipterous, having (only) 2 wings AHD/CDC
  double adj dual, having twofold relation/character AHD/W7
  doublet n man's long close-fitting jacket AHD/W7
  doubloon n old Spanish gold coin AHD/W7
  doubt vb to fear AHD/W7
  duad n pair AHD/W7
  dual adj re: two AHD/W7
  dubious adj equivocal, occasioning doubt AHD/W7
  duet n composition for two performers AHD/W7
  duo- pfx two AHD/W7
  duo n pair, duet AHD/W7
  duple adj having two units/members AHD/W7
  duplex adj double, twofold AHD/W7
  duplicate adj re: two identical/corresponding parts/examples AHD/W7
  duplicity n doubleness, state of being double AHD/CDC
  dyad n pair AHD/W7
  epididymis n elongated mass at back of testis AHD/W7
  hendiadys n expression of idea by two connected nouns AHD/W7
  mistletoe n European semiparasitic green shrub GED/W7
  redoubtable adj formidable, causing fear/alarm AHD/W7
  twain adj two AHD/W7
  tway nbr.card.dial two (2) AHD/W7
  twayblade n type of orchid AHD/W7
  tweens n.pl hobbit years 20-32 in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  twelfth nbr.ord 12th AHD
  twelve nbr.card 12 AHD/W7
  twenty nbr.card 20 AHD/W7
  twibill n double-bladed battle-ax, lit. two-bill AHD/CDC
  twice adv on two occasions AHD/W7
  twig n small shoot/branch AHD/W7
  twilight n light refracted/reflected by atmosphere while sun is down AHD
  twill n fabric with a certain weave AHD/W7
  twin adj (born) together as pair AHD/W7
  twin n either of two born together W7
  twine n strong string of two/more twisted strands AHD/W7
  twist vb to unite (strands/threads/wires) by winding one around another AHD/W7
  twixt prep betwixt AHD/W7
  two nbr.card 2 AHD/W7
  twofold adj double, 2 times the number/quantity LRC
  zwitterion n dipolar ion AHD/W7
Scots English: betwisht/betweesht prep betwixt CDC
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: twelef/twilif/tolef nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two left GED/ASD
  twēn(e), twā, twā nbr.card two (2) GED
  twi- pfx twice, double ASD
  twīfil n.masc doubt GED
  twīne adj two each GED
  twintich/twintege nbr.card twenty (20) GED/ASD
  twi-ra adv twice GED
  twiska(a) prep twixt GED
  twist n.str.masc division GED
Middle Dutch: twijn n twine W7
  twist n.str.masc quarrel, division GED
Dutch: teen n.masc twig, withe, osier GED/ASD
  tusschen prep between, among TLL
  twee nbr.card two (2) LRC
  tweeling n twin TLL
  twiju n.neut twine, twist ASD
Old Saxon: tēn n staff GED
  tweho n.masc doubt, uncertainty GED
  twehōn vb.wk to (inspire) doubt GED
  twelif nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two left GED
  twēne, twā/twō, twē nbr.card two (2) GED
  twentig nbr.card twenty (20) GED
  twīfli adj doubtful GED
  twīflian/twīflōn vb.wk to cause (to) doubt GED
  twisc adj two each GED
  twist n.str.masc division GED
Old Low German: twi- pfx twice, double ASD
Middle Low German: tēn n thin metal rod GED
  twīvel n.str.masc/neut doubt GED
Old High German: zein/zain n.masc twig, reed, ruler ASD
  zweho n.masc doubt, ambiguity GED
  zwehōn vb.wk to doubt, hesitate GED
  zweig n twig GED
  zweinzug nbr.card twenty (20) GED
  zwelif nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two left GED
  zwēne, zwā/zwō, zwei nbr.card two (2) GED
  zwi- pfx twice, double ASD
  zwīfoli adj doubtful GED
  zwī(g) n.str.masc twig, branch GED/ASD
  zwinal/gezuinele n.masc twin ASD
  zwiro/zwirōr adv twice GED
  zwisk adj twofold GED
  zwīval n.str.masc/neut doubt GED
  zwīvelen vb.wk to cause (to) doubt GED
  zwīvo n.wk.masc doubt GED
Middle High German: zein(e) n reed, branch; rod, pole GED
  zwēne nbr.card two (2) CDC
  zwi- pfx two, twice, double CDC
  zwir/zwis adv twice GED
  zwirn n.str.masc twist, thread GED
  zwist n.str.masc division GED
German: Zain n.masc reed, branch; rod, pole GED
  zwanzig nbr.card twenty (20) LRC
  zween nbr.card two (2) CDC
  zwei nbr.card twain, two (2) GED
  Zweifel n.masc doubt LRC
  zweifeln vb to (cause to) doubt LRC
  Zweig n.masc twig, branch LRC
  zweimal adv twice LRC
  zwie- pfx two, twice, double CDC
  Zwilling n.masc twin LRC
  zwischen prep between, among TLL
  Zwist n.masc brawl, dispute LRC
  zwitter adj hybrid W7
  Zwitterion n.neut zwitterion W7
  zwölf nbr.card twelve (12) LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: tveir, tvā nbr.card two (2) EIE
  tvinnr adv two-by-two W7
Old Icelandic: teinn n twig, sprout GED
  tolf nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two left GED
  tuttugu nbr.card twenty (20) GED
  tveir, tvǣr, tvā nbr.card two (2) GED
  tvennr/tvinnr adj twofold GED
  tvis-tra vb.wk to separate GED
  tvis-var adv twice GED
  tvī-faldr adj double, lit. two-fold GED
  tys-var adv twice GED
Icelandic: teinn n.masc twig, sprout, spit ASD
  tólf nbr.card twelve (12) ASD
  tuttugu nbr.card twenty (20) ASD
  tveir, tvær, tvau nbr.card two (2) ASD
  tvi-fættr adj two-footed ASD
  tví- pfx twice, double ASD
Norwegian: ten n.masc slender rod ASD
Danish: ten n.masc spindle ASD
  to nbr.card two (2) LRC
  tvilling n twin TLL
Old Swedish: twis-wær adv twice GED
  tys-wa(r) adv twice GED
Swedish: ten n.masc rod, spindle ASD
  tvilling n twin TLL
  två nbr.card two (2) LRC
E-Germanic  
Gothic: *tains n.masc twig, branch GED
  twai, twos, twa nbr.card two (2) LRC
  twai-tigjus nbr.card twenty (20) ASD
  twa-lif nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two left GED
  *tweifleins n.fem doubt GED
  tweifljan vb.wk to cause doubt GED
  *tweifls n.masc doubt GED
  *tweihnai adj both, two each GED
  tweihnai adj two each W7/GED
  tweihnaim prep 'tween W7/GED
  *twis-standan vb.str.VI to part GED
  *twis-stass n.fem discord GED
  weina-tains n.masc vine-twig/branch GED
  wit pron.du we two GED
Crimean Gothic: tua nbr.card two (2) GED
  *þiinetua/thune-tua nbr.card twelve (10 + 2) CGo/GED
Italic  
Old Latin: *duīni adj two each CDC
  duis/dvis adv twice GED
Latin: bilanx adj  having two scale pans AHD
  bilix, bilicis adj having double thread W7
  bīnālis n twin AHD
  binarius adj binary, two-part CDC
  bīni, bīnae, bīna adj two each, two-by-two GED
  bi-pēs adj two-footed GED
  bis, bi- adj/adv/pfx twice, double, in two GED
  conduplico, conduplicāre, conduplicavi, conduplicatus vb to double W7
  di- pfx undo, separate W7
  diploma n.neut folded letter, letter of introduction W7
  dis prep apart, in two directions GED
  dualis adj of two, binary W7
  dubitō, dubitāre vb to doubt, waver W7
  dubius adj dubious W7
  dubo, dubare vb to vacillate W7
  duo, duae, duo nbr.card two (2) LRC
  duodecim nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two (and) ten GED
  duplex, duplicis adj double W7
  duplicō, duplicāre, duplicavi, duplicatus vb to double, duplicate W7
  duplus, dupla, duplum adj double, lit. two-fold GED
  vīgintī nbr.card twenty (20) GED
Vulgar Latin: bilancia n.fem scale W7
Late Latin: anadiplosis n.fem anadiplosis W7
  bilanx, bilancis adj having two scalepans W7
  binarius adj two by two W7
  combino, combināre vb to combine W7
  dyas, dyadis n.fem dyad W7
  hendiadys n.neut expression of idea via 2 nouns connected by 'and' W7
Middle Latin: bisalus n stone with two slopes/angles CDC
New Latin: bistorta n bistort CDC
  dichasium n.neut cymose inflorescence W7
  diploe n.masc bony tissue in the skull W7
  epididymis n.fem mass of tubes in testicles W7
Portuguese: balança n balance CDC
  bisel n bezel CDC
Spanish: balanza/balanca n balance CDC
  bisel n bezel CDC
  dobla n.fem old Spanish coin W7
  doblón n.masc old Spanish coin W7
Old French: balance n.fem scale W7
  *besel/bisel n bevel CDC
  double adj double, twofold W7
  douter vb to doubt W7
Middle French: bistorte n bistort W7
  combiner vb to combine W7
  deus nbr.card two (2) W7
  di- pfx two W7
  double adj double W7
  doublet n.masc doublet W7
  douter vb to doubt W7
  redoutable adj redoubtable, to be feared W7
  redouter vb to dread W7
French: balance n balance CDC
  biseau n.masc bevel, chamfer W7
  bistorte n bistort CDC
Old Occitan: balansa n balance CDC
Italian: bilancia n balance CDC
  bistorta n bistort CDC
  duetto n.masc duet, dialogue, couple W7/CID
  duo adj two W7
Baltic  
Old Prussian: dwai nbr.card two (2) EIE
Lithuanian: dù, dvì nbr.card two (2) GED
  dveigỹs adj two years old GED
  dvejópas adj twofold GED
  dvìdešimt nbr.card twenty (20) GED
  dvỹ(na)s n twin GED
  tíek adv so much, so many LRC
  vè-du pron lit. we two GED
Latvian: divi nbr.card two (2) GED
  dvìnis n twin GED
Slavic  
Czech: oba-pol adj from both sides GED
Serbo-Croatian: dvîze adj two-year-old GED
Old Church Slavonic: dъva, dъvě nbr.card two (2) GED
Russian: dva, dve nbr.card two (2) EIE
  dvójka n pair GED
Albanian  
Albanian: dy nbr.card two (2) EIE
  dytë nbr.ord second (2nd) EIE
Hellenic  
Mycenaean: dwo nbr.card two (2) EIE
Homeric Greek: διά prep through, between LRC
  δοιή n doubt, perplexity GED
  δύο/δύω nbr.card two (2) LRC
Greek: anadiploun vb to double W7
  anadiplōsis n.fem repetition W7
  διά adv apart, in two directions GED
  didymos adj double W7
  διόπερ adv therefore, so LRC
  δι-πλός adj double, lit. two-fold GED
  διπλόω vb to double LRC
  diplōma n.neut folded paper, passport W7
  δί-πους adj two-footed GED
  δι(ς)- pfx two CDC
  δίς adv twice GED
  διστάζω n doubt GED
  dicha adv separated in two W7
  dichazein vb to halve W7
  dichasis n.fem halving W7
  δῠο-καί-δεκα nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two-and-ten GED
  δώ-δεκα nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two-ten GED
Anatolian  
Lycian: cbi-/tbi- adj/nbr.card other; two (2) GED
  cbijêtezi nbr.ord second (2nd) GED
Hittite: da-iuga n two-year-old GED
  dammai- adj other GED
  dan/tan nbr.ord second (2nd) GED
  duiyanalli- n second-ranked official GED
Armenian  
Armenian: erkeam n two-year-old GED
  erko-tasn nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two (and) ten GED
  erku nbr.card two (2) EIE
Iranian  
New Persian: dovvom/doyyom nbr.ord second (2nd) EIE
Avestan: biš adv twice GED
  daibitya nbr.ord second (2nd) EIE
  dva nbr.card two (2) EIE
Khotanese: śäta- nbr.ord second (2nd) EIE
Pushto: dwayam nbr.ord second (2nd) EIE
Indic  
Sanskrit: d(u)vā́/dvaú nbr.card.masc two (2) GED
  d(u)vé nbr.card.fem/neut two (2) GED
  dva-kás adj paired GED
  dva-yám n falseness GED
  dvā́daśa nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two (and) ten GED
  dvi- pfx two CDC
  dvi-kás adj two-part, consisting of two GED
  dvitā́ adv/adj twice, double GED
  dvitī́ya nbr.ord second (2nd) GED
  dvi-pád- adj two-footed GED
  dvíṣ adv twice GED
  dviṣṭhas adj ambiguous GED
Tocharian  
Tocharian B: ikäṃ nbr.card twenty (20) GED
  wate nbr.ord second (2nd) EIE
  wi nbr.card two (2) GED
Tocharian A: wät nbr.ord second (2nd) EIE
  wiki nbr.card twenty (20) GED
  wu, wi nbr.card two (2) GED

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VI=class 6
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
card=cardinal
dial=dialectal
du=dual (number)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
nbr=number
neut=neuter (gender)
ord=ordinal
pfx=prefix
pl=plural (number)
prep=preposition
pron=pronoun
prop=proper
sfx=suffix
str=strong (inflection)
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
EIE=J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, eds. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (1997)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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