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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. dhen-   'flat of hand, surface of land, etc.'

Semantic Field: Flat

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: dene n.masc/fem vale, valley ASD
  denn n.neut den W7/ASD
  denu n.fem plain, dale, vale, valley ASD
Middle English: Dan prop.n Dane W7
  den n den W7
English: Dane prop.n native of Denmark LRC
  Danegeld prop.n English tax for forces opposing Danes AHD/CDC
  Danelaw prop.n Danish laws once enforced in N/E England AHD/CDC
  Danish prop.adj/n (re:) Denmark people/culture/language AHD
  den n lair of wild (predatory) animal AHD/W7
  Dwimordene prop.n a.k.a. Lorien in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  thenar n ball of thumb AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Dutch: denne n.fem deck of ship ASD
Old High German: tenni n.neut area, threshing floor W7/ASD
Middle High German: tenne n.neut area ASD
German: Tenne n.fem area ASD
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: Danr prop.n Dane, citizen of Denmark W7
Italic  
New Latin: thenar n.neut ball of thumb W7
Hellenic  
Greek: thenar n.neut palm of hand W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
prop=proper

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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