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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. dher-, dherə-   'to hold, support'

Semantic Field: to Hold


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: drong n troop GED
Old English: darian vb to lurk, lie hidden, be concealed IEW
  d(i)ernan/dyrnan vb.wk to dern OED/ASD
  drēogan, drēag, drugon, drogen vb.str.II to endure, suffer; perform, carry out LRC
  drihten/dryhten n.str.masc lord, prince, ruler GED
  drȳge adj dry LRC
  dryht/driht n.str.fem troop GED/ASD
  dyrne/d(i)erne adj/n.neut secret, hidden, obscure ASD
  ge-drēag n.str.neut troop GED
  indrihten/indryhten adj (very) noble ASD
Middle English: affermen vb to affirm W7
  confirmen vb to confirm W7
  ferm n firm W7
  ferme n rent, lease W7
  infirm adj infirm W7
  t(h)rone n throne W7
English: affirm vb to confirm, validate AHD/W7
  confirm vb.trans to strengthen, make firm(er) AHD/W7
  Darius prop.n old Persian Achaemenid king name AHD
  dern/darn vb to hide, conceal, keep secret OED
  Derndingle prop.n entmoot locale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Dernhelm prop.n Eowyn's nom de guerre in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  dharma n law/custom regarded as duty AHD/W7
  dharna n fast(ing) at debtor's door AHD/CDC
  Drogo prop.n Frodo's father in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  farm n fixed sum payable at fixed intervals AHD/W7
  fermata n prolongation of musical note/chord/rest at discretion of performer AHD/W7
  firm adj securely/solidly fixed in place AHD/W7
  firm n name/style/title by which company conducts business AHD/W7
  firmament n heavens, arch/vault of sky AHD/W7
  infirm adj re: poor/deteriorated vitality AHD/W7
  infirmary n lodging for treatment of sick/infirm AHD/W7
  sirdar n person of high rank, esp. in India AHD/W7
  tahsildar n revenue officer in India AHD/W7
  throne n chair of state of king/prince/bishop AHD/W7
  zamindar n district land revenue collector in India AHD/W7
Old Frisian: dern/dren adj hidden ASD
  dracht/drecht n.str.fem troop GED/ASD
  drochten n.str.masc lord GED
Frisian: dregte n people, multitude, army ASD
Old Saxon: derni adj secret ASD
  dernjan vb to dern OED
  drohtīn n.str.masc lord GED
  druht-folc n army GED
  druht-scepi n authority GED
Old High German: tarnan/tarnen vb to dern OED
  tarni adj hidden ASD
  tru(h)t n.fem multitude ASD
  truhtīn n.str.masc lord GED
Middle High German: truht n.str.fem troop GED
German: Firma n.fem firm, business W7
  tarnen vb to dern, disguise LRC
Old Norse: drangr n rock peak KNW
  draugr n.masc ghost, undead man LRC
  drengr n.masc tree trunk; (gallant) fellow; (young) warrior KNW
  dróttinn n.masc lord, leader of host LRC
Old Icelandic: drottning n.fem queen GED
  drōtt n.str.fem troop GED
  drōttinn n.str.masc lord GED
Icelandic: drōtt n.fem people ASD
  drōttinn n leader, ruler ASD
Danish: dreng n boy TLL
Swedish: tron n throne TLL
Gothic: *drauhtinassus n.masc campaign GED
  *drauhtinon vb.wk.II to perform military service GED
  drauhti-witoþ n.neut campaign GED
  driugan vb to perform military service ASD
  ga-drauhts n.masc soldier ASD
Latin: affirmo, affirmare vb to affirm W7
  confirmo, confirmare vb to confirm W7
  fere adv almost LRC
  firmamentum n.neut support W7
  firmo, firmare vb to make firm, strengthen W7
  firmus adj firm, strong, stout RPN
  infirmus adj infirm, weak W7
  thronus n.masc throne W7
Late Latin: firmamentum n.neut firmament, sky W7
Old French: afermer vb to affirm AHD
  confirmer vb to confirm W7
  ferme n.fem lease W7
  fermer vb to lease (land) W7
  trône n.masc throne W7
Middle French: afermer vb to affirm W7
  ferm adj firm W7
  firmament n.masc sky W7
Italian: fermare vb to stop W7
  fermata n.fem stop, stay, sojourn W7
  firma n.fem signature W7
Lithuanian: diržtù, dir̃žti vb to grow hard, become firm RPN
  diržùs adj solid, firm RPN
  draũgas n companion GED
Old Church Slavonic: drugъ n.masc/adj/pron friend; one; another LRC
  družina n troop GED
  drъžjǫ, drъžati vb to hold RPN
Greek: ἁθρόος adj together LRC
  thronos n.masc throne, chair W7
Old Persian: dar- vb to hold RPN
  Dāraya-vahu- prop.n Darius, lit. upholding the good GED
Persian: -dār n holder W7
  zamīndār n tax collector W7
Avestan: dar- vb to hold, keep RPN
  darz- vb to hold, fasten RPN
  dərəzra- adj firm, strong RPN
  drva- adj firm, sound RPN
Sanskrit: dṛ́hyati vb to be strong RPN
  dharúṇa-ḥ adj holding, supporting RPN
  dhartrá-m n support, prop RPN
  dharma n conformity to one's duty/nature W7
  dhāráyati vb to hold, bear, keep GED/RPN
  dhṛ́ti-ḥ n firmness, resolution RPN
Hindi: zamīndār n land tax-collector W7
  taḥṣīldār n revenue officer (in India) W7
  sardār n person of high rank W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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