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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. dher-, dhereu-, dhrē̆n-   (onomatopoeic: to drone, growl, purr, etc.)

Semantic Field: Sound (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: drēsacht n rattle GED
Old English: dora n.masc bumblebee ASD
  drān/drǣn n.fem drone GED/ASD
Middle English: drane/drone n drone CDC
  drounen vb to drone, roar/bellow (of a dragon) CDC
English: Dora prop.n hobbit name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  drone n male (honey) bee: has no sting, gathers no honey AHD/W7
  drone vb to hum, buzz, murmur LRC
  thre(a)ne n threnody, lamentation CDC
  threnody n elegy, funeral lament AHD/W7
Scots English: drune vb to drone, low CDC
Middle Dutch: dronen/dreunen vb to drone, tremble, quaver CDC
Dutch: dreunen vb to drone, make a trembling noise CDC
Old Saxon: drān n.fem drone ASD
  dren(i)o n.masc drone GED
Old Low German: drān n drone CDC
Middle Low German: drane/drone n drone CDC
  dronen vb to drone CDC
Low German: drone n drone CDC
  drönen vb.wk to drone, rumble GED
  drunsen vb to moo softly GED
Old High German: treno n.masc drone GED
Middle High German: tren(e) n.masc drone CDC/ASD
German: Dran n.masc drone ASD
  drensen vb to groan GED
  Dro(h)ne n.fem drone CDC/ASD
  drö(h)nen vb to drone CDC
  Tre(h)ne/Thräne n.fem drone CDC/ASD
Old Icelandic: dryn-hraun n lit. roaring-stones GED
  drynja vb.wk to roar, rumble GED
Icelandic: drjōni n drone CDC
  drunur n thundering CDC
Norwegian: dryn n.masc booming GED
Danish: drone n.masc/fem drone GED/ASD
  dröne vb to drone, peal, boom, rumble CDC
Swedish: dröna vb to drone, low, bellow CDC
  drönare/drönje n.masc drone(r) CDC/ASD
Gothic: *drunjus n.masc sound, voice, droning GED/CDC
Latin: drēnsō, drēnsāre vb to call/sound (like a swan) GED
  threnus n lamentation CDC
Lithuanian: tranni n drone CDC
Laconian: θρῶναξ n drone CDC
Greek: θρῆνος n.masc dirge, funeral lamentation GED
  θρηνωιδια n.fem dirge, funeral lament LRC
  θρώναξ n drone GED
  τε(ν)θρήνη n bee, wasp GED/CDC
Armenian: dṙnč̣im vb to toot, resound GED
Sanskrit: druna n.masc bee ASD
  dhráṇati vb to (re)sound GED
Tocharian B: treṅk- vb to speak GED
Tocharian A: träṅk- vb to speak GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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