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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: dhēs-, dhəs-   (used in religious terms)

Semantic Field: Religion


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: feire n fair W7
  feste n feast W7
  festival adj festival W7
  Panteon n pantheon, a temple at Rome W7
  prophane adj profane W7
English: apotheosis n deification, elevation to divine status AHD/W7
  atheism n disbelief in existence of deity AHD/W7
  Dorothy prop.n female given name AHD
  enthusiasm n belief in Holy Spirit revelations AHD/W7
  fair n gathering of buyers/sellers at particular place/time AHD/W7
  fanatic adj marked by excessive enthusiasm, intense uncritical devotion AHD/W7
  feast n banquet, elaborate meal (usu. with entertainment) AHD/W7
  feria n day without church feast AHD/W7
  -fest n.sfx festival AHD/W7
  festal adj festive AHD/W7
  festival adj festive, re: feast AHD/W7
  festival n feast, party, celebration AHD/W7
  festive adj re: feast/festival AHD/W7
  festoon n decorative chain/strip suspended between two points AHD/W7
  fete n festival AHD/W7
  fiesta n festival AHD/W7
  henotheism n worshipping one god without denying existence of others AHD/W7
  Oktoberfest prop.n autumn festival emphasizing merrymaking and beer-drinking AHD
  pantheism n doctrine equating God with laws/forces of universe W7
  pantheon n temple dedicated to all gods AHD/W7
  polytheism n belief in/worship of multiple gods AHD/W7
  profane adj secular, not concerned with religion/religious purposes AHD/W7
  Timothy prop.n male given name LRC
German: Fest n.neut feast, holiday, festival W7
  Henotheismus n henotheism W7
  Oktoberfest prop.n.neut Oktoberfest AHD
Latin: fanaticus adj frenzied, fanatic, inspired by deity W7
  fanum n.neut temple W7
  feriae holidays, festal days W7
  festivus adj festive W7
  festum n.neut feast, festival W7
  festus adj festal, solemn W7
  Pantheon n.neut pantheon, grouping of all gods W7
  profanus adj profane, outside the temple W7
  Timotheus n.masc Timothy W7
Late Latin: apotheōsis n apotheosis AHD
  feria n.fem festal day W7
Medieval Latin: feria n.fem fair, weekday W7
New Latin: atheismus n atheism CDC
Portuguese: atheismo n atheism CDC
  festa n feast, festival TLL
Spanish: ateismo n atheism CDC
  fiesta n.fem feast, festival W7
Old French: feire n.fem fair W7
  feste n.fem feast, festival W7
Middle French: athée adj/n.masc atheist W7
  athéisme n.masc atheism W7
  festival n.masc festival W7
  prophane adj profane, outside the temple W7
French: athéisme n atheism CDC
  feston n.masc festal decoration W7
  fête n.fem feast, festival W7
  polythéisme n.masc polytheism W7
Italian: ateismo n atheism CDC
  festa n.fem feast, festival W7
  festone n.masc festoon W7
Greek: atheos adj godless W7
  apotheoun vb to deify W7
  apotheōsis n.fem deification W7
  entheos adj inspired W7
  enthousiazein vb to be inspired W7
  enthousiasmos n.masc divine inspiration W7
  theos n.masc god W7
  pantheion n.neut temple of all gods W7
  pantheios adj re: all gods W7
  polytheos adj re: many gods W7
  Timotheos n.masc Timothy W7
Late Greek: polytheos adj polytheistic W7
Armenian: dik' gods W7/HH


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
HH=Heinrich Hübschmann: Armenische Grammatik (1897)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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